Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 10

8
Saudi Aramco World
ca
p
com
ma
nd
ed
the attention
o
f p
op
es
and p
ri
nc
es
,
s
om
e
of
wh
om
c
onsi
dere
d h
im
a geniu
s; o
th
er
s,
a
h
er
et
ic
.
Th
e s
on
o
f
a
norther
n
Ita
li
an
f
eu
da
l
l
ord,
C
ou
nt
Giova
nn
i
Pi
co
d
el
l
a
M
ir
an
dola
w
as
b
or
n
i
n
1
46
3.
A
c
hi
ld
p
ro
di
gy
,
he
be
ga
n
s
tudyin
g
canon
law a
t a
ge 10
i
n
B
ol
og
na,
f
ol
lo
we
d
b
y
a
c
l
as
si
ca
l,
S
ch
ol
asti
c e
duca
tion—Lat
in
,
G
re
ek
,
Pla
to
a
nd A
ri
s-
to
tl
e—
at
t
he
b
est s
ch
oo
ls
a
nd
u
ni
ve
rs
it
ie
s
o
f
P
ad
ua
,
Rome
and
P
a
ri
s.
E
ag
er t
o
expan
d
h
is h
or
iz
ons,
h
e
a
dded
I
bn
R
us
hd
,
as
w
e
ll
a
s
A
ra
bi
c
and H
eb
rew.
In
t
h
e
o
pe
ni
ng
s
entence
of
his
mos
t
f
am
ous
wor
k,
De
Hom
i-
ni
s
D
ig
ni
ta
te
(
Or
at
io
n
o
n
t
he
Dig
ni
ty
o
f
M
an
),
he
b
le
nd
ed
his
hu
ma
ni
st
ic
dev
ot
io
n
t
o
the c
la
ss
ic
al
G
re
ek
m
ax
im
t
hat
man
i
s
th
e
m
ea
su
re
of
a
ll
t
hing
s”
w
it
h
h
is
r
es
pe
ct
f
or
I
sl
am
ic
l
ea
rn
in
g:
“I
h
av
e
r
ea
d
in
t
he
r
ec
ords o
f
t
he
A
ra
bi
ans,
r
ev
eren
d
Fathe
rs
,
th
at
A
bd
al
a
the
S
arac
en
, w
he
n
q
ue
stione
d a
s
t
o
w
ha
t
s
tage o
f
th
e
w
or
ld
, a
s
i
t w
er
e, cou
ld
b
e
seen
mos
t wor
th
y o
f w
onde
r,
r
e-
pl
ie
d
Th
ere
i
s
not
hi
ng
to
b
e
s
een
m
or
e
w
on
de
rf
ul
t
ha
n
man.’”
Al
th
ou
gh
i
t
was
P
ico’s
r
ep
utat
ion
a
s a
hum
anis
t
t
ha
t
e
nd
eared
hi
m
to
h
is p
atro
n, Lor
en
zo, i
n
148
6
t
he
Or
at
io
n
r
ai
se
d
e
ye
br
ows
at
t
he
V
at
ic
an
f
or its sym
pa
thet
ic rec
og
niti
on of a
w
id
e
r
an
ge of
re
li
gi
ou
s
belie
fs,
fro
m
I
sl
am
t
o t
he occ
ult. Only
L
or
en
zo
’s influ-
en
ce
k
ep
t P
ic
o
o
ut
o
f
p
riso
n,
a
nd i
t w
as
n’
t
unt
il
1493, a
y
ea
r
a
fter
Lo
re
nz
o
s
d
ea
th,
that P
ic
o was offi
ci
ally par
do
ned. Thi
s
s
ame
ye
ar
,
h
e
p
ro
du
ced—
or per
ha
ps
h
e
had
A
lemann
o
produ
ce
—t
he
fir
st
t
ra
ns
la
ti
on
o
f
Hayy
ibn
Yaq
za
n
i
nt
o
L
at
in
.
A
c
on
te
mp
or
an
eo
us cop
y of
this
o
ri
gi
na
l, wri
tten
in
a
sp
id
er
y
h
an
d, its
i
nk
f
aded
b
rown
w
it
h
a
ge, now
res
id
es
a
t
th
e
U
ni
ve
rs
it
y
of Gen
oa
,
whi
ch I
v
isited
t
he nex
t
d
ay
.
C
ar
e-
fu
ll
y
t
ur
ni
ng
the c
reak
ing,
p
ar
ch
ment
l
ea
ve
s, I
n
ot
ed t
he Lat
in
ph
ra
se
,
Di
xi
t
A
bu
ba
cher
(“Ab
ub
ac
er
[Ib
n
T
ufay
l]
s
ai
d”
),
pr
ef
ac
in
g
n
um
er
ous p
ar
ag
ra
ph
s.
La
te
r,
I
d
ro
pp
ed b
y the
o
ffi
ce
of Ste
fa
no
Pittalu
ga
,
p
ro
fe
ss
or
of
m
ed
ie
va
l
a
nd
h
um
an
is
ti
c L
at
in
lit
er
at
ure.
H
e
tol
d
m
e
tha
t
Pi
co’s
d
e
s
ir
e t
o
read and o
n
w
a
b
o
ok
like
Ha
yy
i
bn Y
aq
za
n
,
wi
th
i
ts
h
ea
dy ble
nd
o
f
N
eo
-P
la
to
ni
c,
s
ci
en
ti
fic
a
nd
m
ys
ti
cal
th
em
es
,
m
ade
p
er
fe
ct
s
en
se
d
ur
in
g
a
n
a
ge
w
he
n
h
uman
k
no
w
l
-
edge
, c
reat
iv
it
y
a
nd
i
nt
ui
ti
on
o
cc
up
ied
c
en
te
r
s
ta
ge.
“I
n
t
he
s
ec
on
d
h
al
f
o
f
t
he
1
5t
h c
en
tu
ry
, t
he
re
w
as
a s
tron
g
inte
re
st
in
s
apie
nt
is
ti
c texts
,”
s
aid
P
itta
lu
ga
.
“Of
a
ll
t
he
human
-
is
ts
, P
ic
o was
o
ne who
w
as
m
os
t
i
nt
er
este
d
in try
ing
t
o
fi
nd
c
on
-
ne
ctio
ns b
et
ween k
ab
ba
la
h,
o
r mysticism, and
C
hr
is
tianity.
Th
is is whe
re
Ale
ma
nn
o s
te
pp
ed
i
n. An
autho
ri
ty
o
n
kab
-
ba
la
h, h
e
als
o
wrote
a
su
pe
rc
om
mentary”
(
a
c
omme
ntary
on
a
c
om
mentary)
o
n
Narbo
ni
’s e
di
tion of
Ha
yy
ibn Y
aq
za
n
,
fr
om
w
hi
ch
Pic
o’
s L
atin
t
ext was
tra
ns
la
te
d.
So
ins
pire
d
w
as
Al
em
an
no
b
y
Ha
yy
t
ha
t h
e
mim
ic
ke
d
its
t
he
me
a
nd
t
itle
i
n
his
own
m
ag
nu
m
o
pu
s,
Ha
i
h
a-
Olamin
(
Th
e Imm
or
tal
),
w
hi
ch
ex
pl
or
ed
t
he
a
tt
ai
nm
en
t
o
f
p
erfect
io
n,
o
r
uni
on with
G
od,
th
ro
ug
h
a stu
dy
o
f
A
ra
b
a
nd
J
ew
is
h
s
c
i
en
ce
a
nd
phi
lo
soph
y.
(I
n t
he
a
ut
ob
io
graphi
ca
l
s
ec
ti
on
o
f
t
he
text,
he
p
ai
d
f
ur
th
er
ho
ma
ge
t
o
Ha
yy
b
y
d
iv
id
ing t
he
s
to
ry
o
f
his
o
wn
l
ife int
o
se
ve
n-
year cyc
le
s.)
Al
emanno’s
i
nfl
ue
nc
e—a
n
d
t
here
by
Ibn Tufayl’
s—can
a
ls
o
be
rea
d
in Pico’
s
Heptaplu
s
, a
c
om
m
e
ntary
on
t
he
B
ib
li
ca
l
book
o
f
Genesis
.
Here, he concl
ud
ed that hum
an
s—
after
l
iv
ing
li
ves o
f
r
ig
or
ou
s
s
ci
en
ti
fic
a
nd
s
piri
tu
al
r
efl
ec
ti
on
—are
des
ti
ne
d
to
r
is
e
a
bo
ve
thi
s
wor
ld
a
nd enjoy
reu
ni
on
with
t
he
D
ivin
e.
“T
hi
s
i
s
o
ur
w
hole
r
ew
ar
d,
he
d
ec
lared, e
mplo
yi
ng
the
sa
me
Neo-Pla
toni
c
t
ermi
nology
a
s
I
bn
Tuf
ay
l, “th
a
t f
ro
m
e
v
-
er
y
imp
er
fe
ct
io
n
w
e
a
re brought bac
k
t
o
uni
ty
b
y
an
i
nd
is
-
so
lu
bl
e
b
ond w
it
h
him
w
ho
i
s
h
im
se
lf
t
he One
.”
While’
s
P
ic
o’
s
own path
t
o d
iv
in
e
r
eu
ni
fic
at
io
n
i
n
1
49
4
m
ay
have
b
ee
n
l
es
s
than b
li
ssfu
l
(
rumo
rs p
er
sist
that
he
w
as
poi
so
ne
d
by
j
ea
lo
us
r
iv
al
s),
his impac
t,
and
t
he
re
by I
bn
T
uf
ay
l’s,
s
oon
e
x-
te
nd
ed
b
ey
on
d
F
lorenc
e
and t
h
e
I
ta
li
an pen
insu
la
.
n
E
ngla
nd
,
p
hi
lo
so
ph
er
a
nd
state
sm
an
T
ho
ma
s
M
or
e
lo
ok
ed t
o
P
ic
o’s fascination
w
it
h
H
ay
y
a
s
h
e
d
evel
-
oped
h
is
o
wn t
he
orie
s
o
n mankind
’s
r
el
at
io
ns
hi
p
t
o
Go
d,
n
at
ure
a
nd
s
oc
iety
.
S
ome
hav
e ident
ifi
ed
ana
lo
-
go
us
,
aut
odid
actic the
mes
i
n
M
or
e’
s
1
516
cla
ss
ic
Uto-
pi
a
,
a
pol
it
ic
al
a
nd
p
hi
l
o
so
p
hic
al
t
al
e o
f
a
n
i
de
al
civil
iz
at
io
n,
wh
ic
h h
e
j
us
t
s
o
h
ap
pe
ne
d
t
o
s
et
o
n
a
n
isl
an
d,
cut
off
f
ro
m
co
rr
up
ting
i
nfl
ue
nces
f
ro
m
the
o
ut
si
de
w
or
ld
. M
ea
nw
hi
le,
En
gl
and’s
F
rancis Bacon
,
r
eg
arde
d
as
t
he
father o
f
empir
ic
ism,
al
so
c
once
iv
ed o
f
a myt
hi
ca
l i
sl
and
in
h
is
o
wn
u
to
pi
an
n
ov
el
,
Ne
w
A
tlan
ti
s
.
W
ith a
n eye t
o b
ot
h
He
pt
ap
lu
s
a
nd
Ha
yy
,
B
ac
on
en
vision
ed
a
n
i
ns
ul
ar s
oc
iety
i
n
w
hi
ch
t
he
r
el
ig
iously d
ev
out
in
ha
bi
ta
nt
s
a
re
a
ls
o devot
ed
to
the
p
ur
su
it
o
f
p
ure,
s
ci
en
tific
kn
ow
le
dge.
L
oc
ated
a
t
t
he
ve
ry
e
ye o
f
thi
s
kin
gdom”
i
s
“S
al
om
on
’s
H
ou
se
,”
a
n
institu
ti
on
t
ha
t
a
nticip
ated
t
he
m
od
er
n
re
search
u
nivers
ity, a
nd i
n
1
66
0
inspi
re
d
the
e
st
ab
li
sh
me
nt
of E
ng
la
nd
’s
R
oy
al
S
oc
iety of L
on
do
n
f
or I
mp
ro
vi
ng
N
atur
Kn
owle
dg
e.
The
S
oc
ie
ty
,
a
mo
ng
w
ho
se
e
ar
ly
pre
si
dents
w
a
Is
aa
c
New
to
n,
cho
se
a
s i
ts
m
otto
a
s
horthand
v
er
si
on
o
f
on
of
P
ic
o’s
f
avored
, autodidacti
c
ad
vi
sos
o
f
t
he
R
om
an
poe
t
Horace
,
Nu
ll
iu
s
i
n
v
erba
.”
R
ough
t
ra
ns
la
tion
:
Do
n’t
t
ak
e
anyo
ne
’s
w
or
d
f
or
i
t.
In
F
ra
nc
e,
the
fat
he
r of rat
io
na
lism
,
R
ené Des
ca
rt
es
,
b
orn
i
n
1596
,
w
as dis
till
ing I
bn Tuf
ayl
w
he
n
h
e
f
am
ousl
y
d
ec
la
re
d t
ha
t
ex
is
te
nc
e
e
xi
st
ed
bec
ause h
e
d
id:
I
t
hi
nk
,
t
he
re
fore
I
a
m.
A
ge
ne
ra
ti
on l
at
er, V
ol
tair
e
cho
se
a
n Ede
ni
c
p
ar
ad
is
e
a
s
t
he
b
irth
-
pl
ac
e
o
f
h
is
n
aïve
o
pt
im
ist
C
an
di
de
.
T
he
e
po
nymo
us
h
er
o
o
f
Th
e
fir
st
La
tin t
r
anslation of Hayy Ibn
Ya
qzan
in
England was pub-
lis
hed
in
16
71 in
this volume of fa
cin
g Latin-Arabi
c
pa
ges by Edward
P
oc
ock
e,
Jr
.,
us
ing an Arabic volume
ac
quired
in
th
e 1630’s in Al
epp
o
by
hi
s
fa
the
r,
Ed
ward Pococke,
Sr
.
It
wo
uld ap
pea
r
in English in
17
03,
jus
t
16
ye
ars
be
fore Defoe’s Cru
soe.
al
s
e
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,...52
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