Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 11

May/June 2014
9
hi
s
n
ov
el
Za
dig
,
a
p
io
ne
er
o
f
t
he
s
ci
en
ti
fic
m
et
hod,
a
ls
o
b
ea
rs
re
se
mb
la
nc
e to Hay
y,
w
hi
le
t
he
p
lo
t
i
s
d
er
iv
ed
f
ro
m a
P
er
si
an
ta
le
s
t
e
i
n
n
on
e
o
th
er
tha
n
S
er
en
di
b,
a
no
th
er
e
ar
ly
n
ame
f
or
Sri
La
nk
a,
t
he
s
ug
ge
sted
m
od
el
f
or
H
ayy’s
islan
d.
In
S
pa
in,
t
he
p
rota
goni
st
of Jes
uit
p
hi
losoph
er Bal
th
as
ar
Gr
ac
ia
n’
s
all
egor
ic
al
n
ov
el
Cr
it
ic
on
(
The Cri
ti
c
),
pub
li
sh
ed in
th
e
m
id
-1
65
0’
s,
i
s
nur
sed b
y
a
“be
as
t
an
d
spe
nd
s
t
he
fi
rst
h
al
f
o
f h
is l
if
e
isolated
in
an
isl
and
c
av
e,
ignor
an
t
of
h
uman
ci
vi
li
za
ti
on
.
H
e
lat
er
fi
nd
s
s
oc
ie
ty
v
ap
id
,
an
d
h
e
rel
ie
s
i
ns
te
ad
o
n
nat
ur
e
t
o
rev
e
a
l
Go
d’
s truth
s. W
hile m
od
er
n
c
ri
ti
cs
h
av
e
de
ba
te
d
t
o
wha
t d
eg
re
e
G
ra
ci
an
a
ct
ually
dr
ew
u
po
n
Hay
y’s s
to
ry
, Eng
li
sh
h
istorian
Pa
ul
R
ycau
t,
w
ho in
1
68
1 tra
ns
late
d t
he
Cr
it
icon
i
nt
o
Engli
sh
,
c
on
je
ctur
ed
that
“t
he
A
ut
ho
r
o
f
t
hi
s
b
oo
k
might
o
rigi
na
ll
y
ha
ve
deduc
ed
h
is
f
an
cy
fro
m t
he
His
to
ry
of H
ai Ebn
Y
ak
dh
an
w
ro
te
in A
ra
bi
ck
b
y
Eb
n
Tophail
.”
(
Ni
ne
te
enth
-c
entu
ry
G
er-
ma
n
p
hi
lo
sopher A
rt
hu
r S
ch
op
en
ha
ue
r
wo
ul
d
l
at
er
c
re
di
t
Cr
it
ic
on
a
s a m
aj
or
influ
en
ce
;
tha
t
in
turn w
ou
ld
trickle
down
into t
e
h
w
ri
ting
s
of his
o
wn
i
nt
ellect
ua
l
de
scen
dants: F
riedri
ch
Nie
tzsc
he
a
nd
Al-
be
rt
C
am
us
.)
“No m
at
te
r
h
ow
m
uc
h
t
he
se t
hink
er
s
di
ffer
,” o
bs
er
ve
d
A
tt
ar
,
“it is
c
le
ar
t
ha
t
they
...
inh
er
it
ed
s
om
e
b
as
ic
f
or
mu
la
-
ti
on
s” f
ro
m
I
bn T
uf
ay
l, in
l
ay
in
g
t
he
foundati
on
s
f
or
wha
t
E
ur
ope
w
ould later cal
l i
ts
A
ge
of En-
li
gh
te
nm
ent.
I
t
was an
a
ge
,
a
s Immanue
l
K
an
t
wrote
,
w
he
n
mankin
d, l
ik
e
H
ay
y, g
aine
d
th
e
c
ou
rage a
nd
d
eter
mi
na
ti
on
to
r
el
y
o
n
o
n
e
’s
o
wn
u
nder
stan
di
ng
.”
It w
as
a
ls
o
t
he
a
ge of
Daniel
D
ef
oe.
efoe
w
as not
a gen
tl
em
an, but
h
e
l
on
ge
d to
be o
ne
. Born
t
he son
o
f
a
L
on
do
n
b
ut
cher
around
166
0,
D
an
iel
F
oe
l
at
er
a
dd
ed t
he
“De
to
his
f
amil
y
n
am
e,
c
la
im
in
g
s
ome
v
ague
ly
ar
istocr
at
ic a
nc
estry.
T
he
F
oe
s w
er
e “
Di
ss
en
t-
ers,
a
ls
o
kno
wn
as
Pur
it
ans
o
r
no
nc
on
fo
rmis
ts
,”
P
ro
te
st
an
ts
wh
o
r
ejecte
d
t
he
C
hurc
h of E
ng
la
nd
’s h
ie
ra
rc
hy
a
lo
ng
w
ith
so
me
doc
trin
es
,
and this affiliation f
urth
er ren
de
re
d
Defoe an
ou
ts
id
er
. A
ft
er
a
disma
l
c
ar
eer
a
s
a
m
er
ch
an
t
(
hi
s
b
oo
ks
w
ere
ra
re
ly
b
al
an
ced)
,
a
rockier
o
ne a
s
a
j
ou
r
n
al
is
t
(hi
s
rad
ic
al w
ri
t-
in
g
lan
ded
h
im in
j
ail)
a
nd
a
s
py
f
or
which
ever
s
ide
(li
be
ra
l
o
r
co
ns
er
va
ti
ve
)
w
as
i
n
p
o
wer,
he
t
urne
d
i
n
hi
s
l
ate 5
0’s
t
o
w
ri
t-
in
g
fi
ct
io
n. Pan
deri
ng
to
his
s
oc
ia
l-
cl
im
bi
ng
am
bi
ti
on
s,
and with
a
l
ar
ge
f
am
il
y
to
s
up
po
rt
,
h
e
b
ought
a
ma
no
r
h
ou
se
o
n
t
he
o
utsk
ir
ts o
f
L
ondon
i
n
S
to
ke
N
ew
in
gt
on
,
a
s
an
ct
ua
ry
f
or
w
ealthy nonconformists who
se
r
el
ig
io
us
b
l
e
ie
fs
ba
rr
ed t
he
m
f
ro
m
o
wn
in
g p
ro
pe
rt
y
i
ns
ide
t
he city.
T
he
re
, he
sa
t
d
ow
n
t
o
w
ri
te
his first
and m
os
t
fam
ou
s
nov
el
. H
is
p
lo
t:
A c
as
ta
wa
y
o
n
a
t
ro
pi
ca
l
i
sl
an
d
w
hose i
solation
a
nd
i
nt
ui
ti
on
l
e
ad h
im
t
o
rel
ig
io
us truth
.
Th
e
hou
se
i
s
n
ow gone,
a
s
I
d
isco
v
e
red
.
I
t
h
as
b
ee
n
r
e-
pl
ac
ed
b
y
a
1
9t
h-
ce
nt
ur
y
s
er
ies
o
f
b
ri
ck
fl
at
s
a
nd
s
to
re
fr
on
ts
on
t
he
c
or
ner
o
f
t
he
H
igh
S
tr
ee
t
and
w
ha
t
h
as
b
ee
n
n
am
ed
“D
ef
oe
Roa
d.
” His onl
y
o
th
er
con
ne
ct
io
n
w
it
h
t
he
l
oc
at
io
n
i
s
an
E
ng
li
sh H
er
it
ag
e
b
lue
p
la
qu
e on the
b
ui
ldin
g—
no
t
c
ou
n
t
-
ing
t
he
epo
ny
mo
us
p
ub
a
cr
os
s
t
he
s
tree
t
a
nd
t
he
t
ir
e
sto
re
ar
ound
t
he
c
orner.
Th
ough
h
e
lived
i
n
w
ha
t
w
as
t
he
n
co
un
tr
ys
id
e
as h
e
w
rote
Ro
bi
ns
on
C
ru
-
so
e,
p
ub
li
sh
ed in 1719,
D
ef
oe
sti
ll
k
ep
t
hi
s e
ar
t
un
ed
t
o the
b
uz
z
f
ro
m
L
on
do
n,
wh
ic
h w
as
n
ot
har
d
to h
ear.
M
uc
h
o
f i
t
conc
er
ned t
he
o
ng
oi
ng
r
el
ig
io
us
s
tr
if
e
b
e-
twee
n
Disse
nt
er
s
a
nd
conse
rv
at
iv
e
Anglic
an
s,
and the
c
on
te
nt
io
t
s
Unio
n
of
1
70
7,
j
oining t
he
h t
he
rt
o
ra
te
gov
er
nm
en
ts o
f E
ng
la
n
nd
S
(a
story
tha
t
D
ef
oe
c
ov
ered
as
u
r
is
t)
. A
nother hot t
op
ic
w
as
the
w
ar
in
e
s
s
of
t
he
E
ng
li
sh
m
on
a
r
ch
y
and
m
er
ca
nt
il
e
clas
s
t
ow
ar
d
the
enc
roachi
ng
p
ol
it
ical
a
nd
econ
om
ic
p
ow
er
o
f
t
he Ott
om
an
E
m
p
ir
e
in
s
ou
th
ern a
nd
e
as
te
rn
Eur
op
e, e
ve
n
a
s
th
ey
s
ough
t dip
lo
mati
c
a
nd
t
ra
de
r
el
a-
ti
ons w
it
h
Istan
bu
l.
A
popular
v
en
ue
for
th
es
e
dis
cu
ss
ions
was
a r
ecen
t
c
om
me
rc
ia
l
enterprise
with roo
ts i
n t
ha
t
r
iv
al
e
mp
ir
e:
th
e
cof
fe
ehou
se
.
“J
us
t
lik
e
t
od
ay, y
ou
w
en
t t
he
re
t
o
dr
in
k
c
of
fee, b
ut
p
ri
ma
rily to talk
to
o
th
er
peop
le
and
r
ea
d
n
ew
sp
aper
s,
sai
d
Mar
km
an
E
llis
,
a
ut
ho
r
of
Th
e
Cof
fe
e
H
ou
se
: A
C
ultu
ra
l
H
is
to
ry
a
nd
p
ro
fe
ss
or
o
f
E
ig
h
-
te
enth
C
entu
ry
S
tudies
i
n
t
he Engli
sh
D
epar
tm
ent at Q
ue
en
Ma
ry
U
ni
ve
rs
it
y
o
f
L
on
do
n.
Th
ey w
er
e a
ls
o
a
bs
ol
ut
el
y
e
ss
e
n
-
ti
al
to
t
he
c
om
me
rc
ia
l
f
un
ction
o
f t
he
c
it
y.
L
lo
yd
’s o
f
L
on
do
n,
for
e
xample
, b
egan
as
a
coffe
ehou
se
,
w
here p
ro
pr
ietor
E
dw
ar
d
Ll
oyd p
os
te
d
new
s
o
f
t
he
a
rr
iv
als
o
f
s
hips
f
or his c
usto
me
rs
in
te
re
st
ed
in
s
hi
pp
in
g
a
nd
marin
e i
ns
urance
.
N
ews
of
t
he
O
tt
o-
man E
mp
ir
e
w
ou
ld
a
ls
o h
av
e
bee
n
centr
al
b
ec
au
se o
f
t
he
s
ie
ge
of V
ie
nn
a i
n 168
3.
So t
he
que
stio
n
o
f
the empire’s
c
on
ti
nu
ed
expans
ion
w
ould h
av
e
bee
n o
n
p
eo
pl
e’
s
m
in
ds
.”
Of
equ
al i
mp
or
ta
nc
e,
Ell
is
t
ol
d
m
e,
w
as
t
he
d
esir
e
to
kno
w
ho
w
the
e
mp
i
r
e
bec
am
e
s
o r
ic
h a
nd p
ow
er
ful.
“The
re
was a
geopo
liti
cal
a
sp
ect t
o
t
he
ir interes
t,”
h
e
o
b-
se
rv
ed.
Th
ey
w
ante
d
to
k
no
w
more about t
he
Ott
om
an
s,
a
nd
th
is
inclu
ded
cur
io
si
ty
abo
ut
Isl
am a
nd
I
slam
ic kno
wl
ed
ge
.”
Am
on
g
t
he
s
cr
ap
s
o
f
s
uc
h
k
no
wledge
w
as a
b
oo
k
p
ub
li
sh
ed
in
O
xf
or
d
i
n
1
67
1.
Pr
inte
d
i
n
L
atin
a
nd
Ar
abic
o
n
fac
in
g
p
a
g
es
,
it
s
c
umbers
om
e
t
it
le
read
(in p
ar
t)
,
Ph
i-
lo
so
ph
us a
ut
od
id
ac
ti
cu
s,
sive,
E
pi
st
o
l
a
A
bi
Jaa
fa
r
e
bn
T
op
h
a
il
de
H
a
i
ebn
Y
ok
dhan
(
Th
e s
el
f-
ta
ug
ht p
hilo
so
ph
er
, o
r
E
pi
st
le
of
A
bu J
a’af
ar I
bn T
uf
ay
l
con
ce
rning
H
ay
y
I
bn
Y
aqza
n
).
T
he
su
bt
it
le
s
pe
ll
ed
o
ut
t
he nuts
a
nd bol
ts
:
In
w
hi
ch
i
t
i
s
d
em
on
-
stra
ted
by
w
ha
t
m
eans
h
um
an
r
eason
c
an
a
sc
en
d
f
ro
m
c
on
t
e
m-
pl
at
io
n
o
f t
he
i
nf
er
io
r
t
o
k
no
wl
ed
ge
o
f
t
he
s
up
er
io
r.”
Th
e
b
oo
k
w
as
t
ra
ns
la
te
d
by
E
d
w
ar
d
P
oc
oc
ke
,
u
nd
er
the
Almost as go
od a
pu
blicist
as
he
wa
s
a
sch
ola
r,
th
e se
nio
r Ed
war
d
Po
cocke
sent
his
so
n’s
tr
anslation
to
all
and sundr
y
amo
ng
Europ
e’s ed
uca
ted
el
ite
, creat
ing
a
be
st-
sel
ler
.
a
j
o
us
A
c
i
o
f
s
ep
a-
d
a
co
tl
an
d
n
al
-
To men like the Pocockes, exposure to Arabic texts
helped create necessary bridges between East and West.
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