Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 4

2
Saudi Aramco World
T
h
e
s
t
o
r
y is so fa
m
iliar
i
t has become a genre: One man, marooned on a des
e
rt
is
l
e
,
le
a
rns to survive by
his wits
and his mastery of the island’s resour
ces
.
Af
t
e
r
y
ea
rs of isolation, he
e
nco
u
n
ters a native from a neigh
b
oring island w
h
o
b
e
c
o
m
es his companion and pupil, and togethe
r
t
he
y
fo
rm
their
ow
n
literally insular society.
uc
h
w
as the t
al
e t
it
led
Ha
yy
I
bn
Y
aq
za
n
,
w
ri
tt
en
i
n
t
he
1
2t
h
centu
ry by
a
p
hi
l
o
so
ph
er f
ro
m
a
l-
An
da
lu
s,
o
r s
ou
th
er
n S
pa
in
,
nam
ed I
bn
Tuf
ay
l.
He
w
as
k
no
wn t
o
the
m
edie
va
l
W
est
a
s Abuba
ce
r,
on
acc
ou
nt
o
f
h
is
ful
l
name
:
A
bu
B
ak
r
Muham
ma
d
b
in
Ab
d
al-Ma
li
k
b
in
T
ufayl a
l-Qa
isi.
So
me
s
ix
centu
ri
es
later
,
s
ch
ol
ar
s
b
elie
ve
t
ha
t
E
ng
li
sh aut
ho
r
D
an
ie
l
De
fo
e
l
oo
ke
d
t
o
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l’
s
b
oo
k
alo
ng
w
it
h
accou
nt
s
o
f
r
ea
l-
life
c
as
ta
ways
f
or
in
sp
ir
atio
n
w
he
n
wri
ting
his c
la
ss
ic
Ro
bi
ns
on
C
ru
so
e
.
De
fo
e’s
a
tt
ra
ct
ion to Hayy
w
as
mor
e
t
han
p
lo
t-
de
ep.
I
bn T
ufay
l’s
n
ovel
i
s an
al
le
gory
in
w
hi
ch h
is
character, named
H
ayy
ibn
Y
aqza
n (
“L
iv
ing,
son
of
t
he
Wa
ke
fu
l One”),
g
ro
ws f
ro
m
i
nfan
cy w
itho
ut
human
con
tact
o
r
ins
tr
uc
ti
on
, a
nd
ye
t
c
omes t
o
compr
eh
en
d
b
oth
t
he p
hy
sica
l w
or
ld
a
nd
t
he
D
ivin
e.
Thi
s
h
e
d
oe
s
throug
h
sel
f-
ta
ught
k
no
wledge
,
o
r
auto
di
dact
ic
ism,
” as
lat
er sch
ol
ar
s p
u
t i
t.
It was
a
rat
io
nal, e
mp
ir
ical
a
pp
ro
ac
h
to u
nd
erst
an
di
ng
t
he
u
ni
vers
e,
one tha
t
re
sona
te
d
n
ot
only
w
it
h
D
e
f
oe,
but
a
ls
o
w
it
h
m
an
y
of
h
is fel
lo
w
E
ur
op
ea
n
E
nl
ig
ht
-
enme
nt
-e
ra
t
hi
nker
s,
poe
ts
and
w
ri
te
rs
.
B
ac
on
,
M
il
to
n, Locke a
nd o
th
er
s
a
ll d
ip
pe
d
their qui
ll
s, so to
s
pe
ak
,
int
o t
he
k
n well
o
f
Arabic
k” lea
rnin
g,
l
it
eratur
e
a
nd
phi-
lo
so
phy as t
he
y f
or
mulate
d
t
heir v
ie
ws o
n s
ci
en
ce
,
r
el
ig
io
n a
nd
the
h
um
an
c
on
diti
on
.
By
t
he
t
ime D
ef
oe
sat
dow
n
t
o
wri
te
w
ha
t
wou
ld become
h
is
m
ost
f
am
ou
s
n
ov
el
,
I
bn
Tufayl’s
Ha
yy
i
bn Yaqza
n
had
b
ee
n
a
b
es
t-
se
ll
er
for
c
en
turies
,
c
apti
va
ti
ng
E
li
za
be
-
than “natura
l
p
hi
lo
so
ph
er
s” (
sc
ie
ntis
ts
), Renaiss
an
ce
h
um
an
is
ts
a
nd
m
ed
ie
va
l
Jew
is
h
theolo
gian
s,
a
ll of
w
ho
m
loo
ke
d
t
o
t
he
p
lot and philoso
ph
y
of
t
he boo
k
a
s
a
road
ma
p f
or
w
hat
sch
ol
ar
M
ajid F
ak
hr
y,
i
n
h
is
s
tudy
A H
is
to
ry
of
Islam
ic
Philosoph
y
,
des
c
ri
be
d
a
s t
he “
natural p
ro
gr
es
si
on
o
f
t
he
m
in
d
t
ow
ar
ds
tru
th
.”
Aft
er
D
efoe, the
b
ook
a
ls
o
i
ns
pired
t
he l
ik
es o
f
S
pi
no
za
,
V
ol
ta
ire
an
d
R
ou
ss
ea
u.
Ear
ly Q
uakers r
ecog
nized
i
n
Hayy’s
s
to
ry s
ee
ds
of
t
h
e
ir
e
me
rg
in
g
d
oc
tr
ine.
Ho
w
I
bn
T
ufay
l’
s
6
0-
pa
ge
v
olum
e—
hi
s
o
nl
y
s
ur
vivi
ng
boo
k—
beca
me par
t of
the
DNA
o
f
t
he
European
E
nlig
ht
en
ment and a
so
ur
ce
f
or
o
ne
of
t
he
most end
ur
in
g gen
re
s
i
n
fi
ctio
n
i
s
its
el
f
t
he s
tory
of
a
j
ou
rn
ey:
a j
ourn
ey t
ha
t
b
eg
in
s w
ith
t
he
t
ra
vels
o
f I
bn
Tu
fa
yl
h
im
se
lf
a
nd
s
tr
et
ch
es
f
ro
m
the
m
ed
ie
va
l
thi
nk
-t
an
ks
o
f
a
l-
An
dalu
s
a
nd
M
or
oc
co t
o
the
p
alac
es
of
Renai
ss
ance
I
ta
ly
,
t
he
un
iv
er
si
ti
es
o
f O
xf
or
d
a
nd
C
am
brid
ge
,
a
nd
t
he cof
fe
eh
ouses
o
f
D
ef
oe
’s
L
on
do
n,
all a
cros
s
a
s
pa
n
of s
om
e
5
00
y
ea
rs
.
Hay Was Here,
Y
Man
y
of
th
e
hun
dreds of
il
lus
tra
tio
ns produ
ced
sin
ce
th
e
17
19
p
u
blicat
ion
of
The
Li
fe an
d
St
range
Sur
pri
zin
g
Ad
ve
n
tur
es of Ro
bin
son
Cr
usoe,
inc
lud
ing
th
is
o
n
e
publishe
d
in
a 1740
ed
iti
on,
emp
has
ize
d
ad
v
en
ture,
bu
t
li
ke the life of his
pre
dec
ess
or
Ha
y
y ib
n Yaqzan,
Cruso
e’s
so
litary life
ult
ima
tel
y
st
imu
lat
ed philo
sop
hic
al
th
oug
h
t.
Wri
tte
n
by
to
m
v
er
de
i
Robinson Crusoe
1,2,3 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,...52
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