Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 5

May/June 2014
3
y
o
wn
j
ourn
ey a
lo
ng
i
t
b
eg
an
w
ith
a
ph
on
e
c
al
l
t
o
A
vn
er B
en
-Z
ak
en
,
a
ut
ho
r
of
Re
ad
in
g H
ay
y
I
bn
-Y
aq
za
n:
A
C
ro
ss
-
Cult
ur
al
H
is
to
ry o
f
A
ut
od
id
ac
ti
cism
an
d an a
ut
h-
or
it
y
o
n
t
he
his
to
ry
o
f
s
ci
ence
.
He r
eg
ar
ds
I
bn
T
ufay
l’
s
b
oo
k
a
s
a
g
ro
undb
re
ak
ing
c
on
tr
ibutio
n
to e
pi
st
em
ol
og
y,
or
t
he s
tu
dy
o
f
knowle
dge.
“F
or
t
he
fi
rs
t
time, i
n
t
hi
s f
ab
u
-
lo
us
p
hi
lo
so
ph
ic
al
n
ov
el
,
w
e
hav
e
a
c
oh
er
en
t c
la
im
f
or
h
ow
fi
rs
t-
ha
nd
e
xp
er
ie
nce
c
an be t
he
b
as
is
fr
om
w
hi
ch
w
e
ext
ract
e
vi
de
nc
e,
fa
ct
s
a
nd
t
he
n, fina
ll
y, p
hi
lo
soph
i
-
ca
l
pri
nc
ip
le
s
.
T
hi
s was c
om
pl
ete
-
l
y
dif
fe
re
nt
f
ro
m
p
re
vi
ou
s v
iews
[o
f
epi
st
em
ol
og
y]
t
ha
t
a
sc
ri
e
b
d
the
ac
qu
is
it
ion
o
f
k
no
wl
edge t
o
a
n
au
th
or
ity,”
sai
d Ben
-Zaken.
T
he
no
ve
l’
s
t
he
me o
f
a
ut
od
id
ac
ticism
,
he m
ai
nt
ai
ne
d,
i
s
“th
e
m
os
t
i
m
-
portan
t p
ri
nc
ip
le o
f
m
oder
nity
.”
Ad
mitt
ed
ly
,
q
ui
te
a
wei
gh
t
o
n
the
s
ho
ul
de
rs
o
f
a
s
olit
ar
y
chap
trying
to
g
et
b
y o
n
a
tropica
l is
-
la
nd
.
Yet
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l’s
p
ro
ta
go
ni
st
proves up to the
t
ask.
As Ibn
T
uf
ay
l
r
el
ates
i
t,
H
ayy’
s
story beg
ins
o
n
a c
er
ta
in
e
qu
a
-
to
ri
al
isl
and, l
yi
ng
off
t
he
c
oast
of I
nd
ia
,”
w
he
re
jus
t
t
he
r
ig
ht
atmosp
heric
b
le
nd
o
f
s
un
light,
he
at
and
m
oi
sture
caus
e[
s] h
u
-
ma
n
beings
[
to
]
come i
nt
o
b
ei
ng
with
out
f
at
he
r
o
r
m
ot
her.
” W
hile
Sr
i
Lanka
i
s
a
l
ogical
c
an
di
da
te
,
in
s
om
e t
ra
ns
la
tion
s
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l
na
me
s
thi
s
fabulous s
et
ting
a
s
the
l
eg
en
da
ry i
sl
and
o
f
Waqwa
q,
wh
ic
h sch
ol
ar
s
h
av
e
s
om
et
im
es
id
en
tifie
d
w
ith S
ri
Lan
ka
.
Fir
st
me
nt
io
ne
d i
n an eig
ht
h-
ce
nt
ury
Chin
ese
t
ext,
W
aq
wa
q
figu
re
s
in
se
vera
l
med
ie
va
l
Ara
b
g
eo
gr
ap
hi
es
an
d P
er
sian
a
dv
en
tu
re
n
arra
ti
ve
s,
al
l
o
f
w
hi
ch
inc
lude d
es
cripti
on
s
o
f
t
he
“waqwaq
tre
e,
” a plant
th
at
bea
rs hum
an b
ei
ng
s a
s
f
ru
it
:
At
t
he
mom
en
t
t
he
y
r
ipen
, s
o
t
o
sp
eak,
a
nd
f
al
l
t
o
the
g
ro
un
d,
t
he
y
cr
y,
Wa
q-wa
q!
Wh
il
e
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l
w
as
a
im
in
g
mo
re
f
or
all
eg
or
y
t
ha
n
g
eo
graphy
,
ei
th
er
a
myt
hi
cal
or
a
n
actual loca
-
tio
n
w
ou
ld have sui
t
e
d
h
is purposes.
I
n s
uc
h
a
s
et
ting
,
h
e
cou
ld
trac
k
th
e
d
ev
el
op
me
nt
o
f
a
c
hi
ld
’s
m
in
d
f
ro
m
a
ta
bula
r
as
a
t
o
th
at
o
f
a
n
a
du
lt
,
i
n
c
om
pl
ete
i
solation,”
a
cc
or
di
ng
to
M
ah
mo
ud
Ba
ro
ud
o
f
t
he
I
sl
am
ic
U
ni
ve
rs
it
y o
f
G
az
a a
nd
a
uthor i
n
2
01
2
o
f
The
S
hipw
re
ck
ed
S
ai
lo
r
i
n
A
ra
bi
c
a
nd
W
es
te
rn
L
it
er
at
ur
e:
I
bn
Tu
fa
yl
a
nd
H
is
I
nfl
ue
nc
e
o
n
Eur
op
ea
n
Wri
ters
.
Un
de
r s
uc
h
c
ir-
cu
msta
nc
es
,
B
ar
ou
d e
xp
lain
ed
,
Hay
y
“wa
s
f
re
e
t
o
learn
t
hr
ou
gh
se
nsory
exp
er
ienc
e, r
ea
so
ni
n
g
,
a
nd
co
nt
emplatio
n.
Ib
n Tufayl
d
id
h
av
e
o
ne
p
ro
b
-
le
m, h
owev
er. S
po
nt
an
eo
us
g
en
er
-
at
io
n
c
on
fli
ct
ed
w
it
h
t
he
o
rt
ho
do
x
pr
emis
e
of God as s
ol
e
c
rea
t
or
.
Thus
,
I
bn Tuf
ay
l
g
av
e
H
ay
y
h
is
ow
n
alt
er
nate ba
ck
st
or
y:
O
n
a
near
by
i
sl
an
d,
t
he
s
is
te
r
of
a
k
in
g
ma
rr
ie
s
wit
ho
ut
her b
ro
th
er
’s
p
er
-
mi
ssio
n
and
giv
e
s
b
ir
th
t
o
a
c
hi
ld
,
wh
om s
he
p
la
ce
s
i
n a
ti
gh
tl
y
se
al
ed
a
rk
” (
like
the
i
nf
ant
M
o
-
se
s)
.
A
s
tr
on
g
curre
nt
a
nd
a
g
en
tl
e
ti
de dep
osit
t
he
sea
born
e
cri
b
o
n
an
i
sl
an
d.
A
mothe
r
gaz
el
le
h
ea
rs
th
e bab
y’
s cri
es
, frees
h
im f
ro
m
th
e
a
rk and
b
egins
t
o
suc
kl
e
h
im
.
Th
e
g
azel
le b
ec
om
es
H
a
y
y’
s
f
os
te
r
m
o
ther and “
co
ns
ta
nt
n
ur
se
,
c
ar
-
in
g f
or
h
im
,
r
ai
si
ng
h
im
,
a
nd
p
ro
-
te
ct
in
g him
f
rom
harm.
As he g
rows
,
H
ay
y lea
rn
s
t
he
vo
ca
l
s
ou
nd
s of t
he
c
re
atur
es
o
n
th
e i
sl
an
d
“wi
th a
ma
zi
ng
acc
ur
a
-
cy”—
mu
ch
as did
K
ip
li
ng
’s
1
8
9
4
Mowgli
an
d E
dg
ar R
ic
e
B
ur
-
ro
ug
hs
’s
1
912 T
ar
za
n, t
wo
m
or
e
lite
ra
ry
d
escend
ants
o
f H
ay
y,
ac
cordin
g
t
o B
ar
ou
d
and
o
th
er
s.
Ha
yy
cov
ers
him
self w
it
h
f
ea
th
er
s
an
d, rec
og
nizi
ng
t
ha
t
most
a
ni
-
ma
ls hav
e
a
pp
en
da
ge
s
u
se
fu
l
f
or
defe
ns
e—
ho
rns, b
eaks
,
c
la
ws
f
a
sh
io
ns
s
pears
a
nd
c
ut
ti
ng
t
oo
ls
fr
om s
ti
cks
a
nd
s
to
ne
s.
Wh
en
H
ay
y
is
s
ev
en
, t
he
g
az
e
l
le
di
es
.
A
t
fi
rs
t
g
ri
ef
-s
tr
icken,
H
ay
y
ul
ti
ma
tely d
is
se
ct
s
h
er,
i
n
h
op
e
of findin
g
the sou
rce of
her
p
ai
n.
Fa
il
in
g
t
o
bri
ng h
er
b
ac
k
t
o
l
if
e,
he
n
on
et
heless lea
rn
s t
he
b
as
ic
s
of ana
tomy
:
t
he mec
ha
ni
cs
of
t
he
lu
ng
s,
t
he
c
irculatory s
ys
te
m,
t
he
ch
am
be
rs
o
f
t
he
h
ea
rt
a
nd
m
or
e.
Wh
en
h
e
d
is
co
ve
rs one
h
ea
rt
ch
am
ber
fi
lled
w
it
h
c
lott
ed
b
lo
od
an
d
t
he
o
th
er
e
mp
ty
,
h
e
d
et
er
m
i
ne
s
th
at w
ha
t
h
e
w
as
s
ea
rc
hing
f
or
“w
as [
ther
e]
b
ut
lef
t.
Cat
chin
g
an
d
s
im
il
ar
ly d
isse
ct
in
g
o
th
er
an
im
als,
he
ded
uc
es
t
ha
t
the
h
ea
rt
mu
st
c
on
ta
in
e
ac
h
c
re
at
ur
e’s
ind
iv
id
ua
l
s
pi
ri
t—in
s
ho
rt
,
its
s
ou
l.
Ib
n
T
ufay
l
d
iv
id
es
t
he
s
to
ry
o
f
H
ay
y’
s a
ut
od
id
ac
ti
ci
sm i
nt
o
se
ven
s
even-y
ea
r s
eg
me
nts,
u
p
t
hr
ou
gh
age
4
9.
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l
r
e
-
ILLUSTRATION BY LILI ROBINS; OPPOSITE: DE AGOSTINI PICTURE LIBRARY / BRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY
The
se
minal
em
pir
ici
sm Ibn
Tu
fayl ex
pre
sse
d
in
Hay
y
Ib
n
Yaqzan wa
s ro
oted in bo
th
cl
ass
ica
l
an
d
Mu
slim
so
urc
es.
It
hel
ped
in
spi
re
not
on
ly Narbo
ni,
de
lla
Mi
ran
dola, the
Pocock
es an
d
Defoe, but
also au
tho
rs,
philo
sop
hers
an
d
scient
ist
s wh
o
all drew on
hi
s and
re
lated
id
eas to debate
and define modernity, up to the present.
1,2,3,4 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,...52
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