Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 7

May/June 2014
5
na
tu
r
al
w
or
ld
, asks
w
ha
t
i
t
mea
ns t
o
b
e
a
Chr
is
ti
an
a
nd
e
xa
mi
ne
s
hi
s
o
wn
r
el
at
io
ns
h
i
p
to
G
od
.
F
ew
r
ea
de
rs t
od
ay a
ls
o
r
ea
li
ze t
ha
t
Th
e
L
if
e
a
nd
S
tran
ge Surpr
i
zin
g
A
dv
entu
re
s
wa
s
b
ut
t
he
fi
rst
i
n
a
tr
il
og
y
o
f
Cru
so
e
n
ov
els
t
ha
t
inc
luded
The
F
arth
er
A
dven
tu
re
s
o
f
Ro
bi
ns
on
C
rusoe
a
nd
Se
ri
ous
R
eflec
ti
ons
o
f
Robin
so
n
Cruso
e
.
In
th
es
e,
D
ef
oe
d
e
t
aile
d
C
ru
so
e’
s
f
or
tu
ne
s
a
ft
er
b
ei
ng
r
es
cu
ed
,
a
s w
el
l
as
his
her
o’
s
s
pi
ri
tual
d
evelop
ment
. B
y
t
he
l
as
t
c
ha
pt
er
o
f
Se
ri
ou
s
Refle
ctions
,
C
r
u
soe
i
s
n
o l
on
ge
r
c
on
ce
rn
ed
wit
h
b
ui
ld
in
g
r
af
ts
a
nd
sc
ra
tc
hi
ng
t
he
s
an
dy
s
oi
l
of
t
he i
slan
d
f
or
f
oo
d:
H
e
i
s
r
um
in
at
in
g
on
t
he
a
sc
en
t
o
f
t
he
hum
a
n
min
d
to
the hig
he
st and mos
t
d
is
ta
nt
regi
on
s
o
f lig
ht
.”
M
uc
h
l
ik
e H
ay
y
i
bn
Y
aqza
n.
As
s
ch
ol
ar S
a
m
ar
A
tt
ar
o
bs
er
ve
d
i
n
2
00
7 in
Th
e
V
it
al
R
oots
of
E
ur
opea
n
Enl
ig
hten
me
nt:
I
bn T
ufay
l’s Influe
nc
e
on
M
od
er
n
We
st
er
n
Tho
ug
ht
,
b
ot
h
m
en a
re a
drif
t
o
n d
es
er
t
i
sl
an
ds
whe
re
th
ey
l
earn t
o
s
ur
vi
ve w
it
ho
ut h
um
an
h
elp o
r
i
nt
ervent
io
n.
B
ot
h
re
ly
o
n
reaso
n
a
nd
t
h
e
s
ci
en
ti
fic
m
et
ho
d
of
o
bs
erva
tion
a
nd
ex
pe
ri
me
nt,
tri
al
a
nd e
rr
or
,
t
o gain
k
no
wl
ed
ge
o
f
their
nat
ur
al
su
rr
ou
ndin
gs
.
F
rom
t
he
re,
t
hey
pr
og
re
ss
t
o
s
up
er
na
tura
l
a
nd
di
vi
ne mat
te
rs
.”
B
ot
h
quest
io
n
r
el
ig
io
us
e
xt
re
mi
sm
,
a
nd
b
ot
h
ev
en
tu
al
ly
b
ef
ri
en
d
tra
ns
pl
an
ts
f
ro
m
n
earby i
slan
ds
—C
ru
so
e’
s
Fr
iday
a
n
d
H
ay
y’
s A
bs
al—w
ho
bec
om
e
p
ro
s.
At
tar w
as
har
dly
the
fi
rs
t
to
d
raw s
uc
h
co
mp
ar
is
on
s.
B
ib
li
og
ra
phie
s
o
f
w
or
ks
pu
bl
is
he
d
o
ve
r
t
he
last
h
al
f-
ce
ntur
y
o
n
t
he
to
pic,
a
nd m
or
e
s
pe
cific
al
ly
o
n
I
bn Tu
-
fa
yl’s influe
nc
e
o
n
Eur
op
ea
n
thought,
r
un
to m
ul
tiple, s
i
n
gle-
sp
ac
ed
pag
es
.
Mos
t
of
th
ese
m
od
ern
s
tu
di
es
tra
ce
t
he
ir ped
ig
re
es
back
t
o A
nt
on
io
P
as
to
r’
s
Th
e I
de
a
o
f R
ob
-
in
so
n
Cru
so
e
,
p
u
blis
he
d
i
n
1
93
0. Head
o
f
the Spani
sh
d
epartmen
t
a
t K
ing’s C
ol
lege
Lo
nd
on
,
P
as
to
r
sta
te
d
i
n
h
is
s
um
mary
op
in
ion
o
f
Ha
yy
i
bn Y
aq
zan
t
ha
t
“withou
t
ex
ce
pt
io
n,
no
O
ri
enta
l wor
k o
f
fi
ctio
n
has
le
ft
m
ore
rem
ar
ka
bl
e t
ra
ce
s i
n
m
od
e
r
n
E
u
-
ro
pean l
it
erat
ur
es.”
Ev
en i
n D
ef
oe’s
o
wn
d
ay
,
l
it
erary cog
no
-
scenti
were
i
de
ntifying Crusoe wit
h
H
ay
y.
Al
exan
de
r
P
op
e,
w
ri
ti
ng
t
o
h
is fri
en
d
L
or
d
Ba
th
urst
i
n
S
ep
te
mb
er 171
9—
fiv
e
m
on
th
s
af
te
r
Defoe
p
ub
li
shed
Ro
bi
nson Cruso
e
jo
ki
ng
ly
c
om
pa
red
Bat
hu
rs
t’
s
i
so
la
tion
a
t h
is
es
ta
te
i
n
Glo
uc
este
rs
hire
t
o
t
hat
o
f
Al
ex
an
-
de
r S
el
kirk
,
or
t
h
e
S
el
f-taught
Phi
loso
ph
er
.”
Se
lk
ir
k
was
a
rea
l sailor,
m
aroone
d
o
n a
n
is
la
nd
off t
he
c
oast
of
Chi
le
f
ro
m
1
70
4 to
17
09
,
w
ho
se story
i
s c
ommo
nl
y c
it
ed
a
s
a
co
nt
em
po
ra
ry
i
ns
pira
ti
on for
Cr
us
oe
,
w
hi
le
th
e
S
el
f-taught
p
hi
-
lo
so
ph
er
w
as
t
he
t
it
le
o
f
a
1
70
8 E
ng
li
sh
tra
ns
la
ti
on
o
f
Ha
yy
i
bn
Ya
qz
an
,
a
t
ra
ns
la
tion
P
op
e
i
s
k
no
wn
t
o
h
av
e
h
ad
i
n
h
is
lib
ra
ry.
“T
he
b
ook
may h
a
v
e b
ee
n
w
ri
tten
in
A
ra
bi
c,
b
ut
i
t
w
as
n
ot
an
a
li
en
p
ro
du
ct
w
it
hin t
he M
ed
it
errane
an
a
nd E
urop
ea
n cul-
tu
re
,” s
aid
S
pe
rl
.
In
s
ho
rt
,
i
t
w
as
cle
ar that I
bn
T
uf
ay
l’s s
to
ry
h
ad
w
ha
t
j
ou
r
-
na
li
st
s
r
ef
er
t
o
as “
le
gs
.” I s
et
o
u
t
t
o
disco
ve
r
w
hy
.
“I
f y
ou
are
goi
ng
o
n
such
a
jou
rn
ey
,
you mus
t beg
in i
n
Gu
ad
ix
,
in
the eas
te
rn
p
art
o
f
A
nd
al
us
ia
,
w
he
re
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l
w
as
bo
rn
,
B
en
-Z
ak
en
a
dvis
ed
m
e.
I
t
hi
nk the
re
,
y
ou
w
ill
fi
nd
a
ve
ry i
mp
orta
nt p
ie
ce
o
f
t
he
p
uzzle.
m
o
ng
E
ur
op
e’
s
hig
he
st
p
ea
ks
,
t
he
s
no
wc
ap
pe
d
Si
erra
N
ev
ad
a
m
ountai
ns
e
mb
ra
ce
t
he
c
it
y
o
f
Gu
ad
ix,
a
n h
ou
r’s d
ri
ve
n
or
th
ea
st
o
f
G
ra
na
da
,
li
ke
a
m
other
p
olar bear
s
he
lt
er
in
g
h
er c
ub
.
I
ro
de
t
here
w
it
h
G
uadi
x n
ativ
e
A
na
C
ar
re
ñ
o,
form
er
e
di
to
r
o
f
El L
eg
ad
o
Andalus
i
, a m
ag
azin
e
a
bout
M
us
-
li
m
h
erit
ag
e
i
n
S
pain
a
nd
the
M
edit
er
ra
ne
an.
“D
o y
ou
s
ee
t
he
c
hi
mn
ey
s?
” s
he
a
sk
ed
,
p
oi
nt
in
g t
o
t
he
wh
it
ew
as
hed,
bul
let-
sh
aped
protr
us
ions tha
t
stu
dd
ed
t
he
l
an
d
-
sc
a
p
e
l
ik
e
a l
egion
o
f
c
ar
to
on
g
ho
st
s.
T
he
se
,
s
he
e
xp
la
in
ed
,
e
b
lo
ng
t
o
c
av
e
h
ou
se
s, all
c
ar
ve
d f
ro
m
t
he
s
oft,
och
re
-s
ta
ine
d
soil
. S
ev
er
al
h
un
dr
ed of G
ua
di
x’
s
2
5,000 res
iden
ts
l
iv
e
l
ik
e
th
is
,
whe
re t
he
y
enj
oy
coo
l
c
omfo
rt
during
t
he s
um
me
r
a
nd
in
su
la
te
d
warmth
thr
ou
gh t
he w
in
ter.
W
hi
le G
ua
di
x
i
s o
ne
o
f
Sp
ai
n’
s old
es
t
s
et
tl
emen
ts
,
its
c
av
es dat
e o
nl
y
t
o
t
he
eig
ht
h
c
en
-
tury, she e
xp
lain
ed, when
it
w
as
a
n
A
rab t
ra
di
ng
c
ity
k
no
wn
as
W
ad
i
As
h,
from which
i
s d
er
ived
i
ts m
od
er
n
Spa
ni
sh
n
am
e,
pr
on
ou
nced
wah-
de
eks
.”
Over
a
r
us
tic
s
nack of o
li
ve
s
a
nd roasted
pep
pers
d
re
nc
he
d
in
g
ol
de
n
S
pa
ni
sh
oli
ve
oil
,
C
arre
ñ
o
int
ro
duced m
e
t
o
M
an
ue
l
Ar
anda
,
own
er
o
f
v
ac
at
io
n
ren
ta
l cav
es in a n
ea
rb
y
v
il
la
ge
a
nd
ma
yo
r
(
“I’m
Spa
in
’s only
m
ay
or
w
ho
l
iv
es
in
a
c
av
e,
h
e
delig
ht
ed
i
n
poi
nt
ing
o
ut
)
of E
l V
al
le d
el Zalabi, a
m
un
i
c
ip
alit
y
t
ha
t
in
cl
ud
es
E
xfi
li
an
a,
w
hi
ch
acc
or
di
ng
t
o
b
es
t
acco
unts i
s
the act
ual
bir
th
pl
ace
o
f
I
bn
Tufa
l
y
,
w
h
o
se
nam
e
h
as b
ee
n H
is
pa
nize
d
locall
y
to
Ab
en
to
fa
il.”
“Cer
tainly, t
he n
am
e
o
f A
be
nt
of
ai
l
i
s
we
ll k
no
wn
h
ere,
s
ai
d A
ra
nd
a,
a
s
a
re
th
os
e
o
f
m
any wri
ters, poets
a
nd
p
ai
nt
ers
th
ro
ugho
ut
his
tory
who dre
w
ins
pi
ra
ti
on
fr
om
t
h
i
s l
an
ds
ca
pe
.
“W
e
a
re 1
00
0
m
et
er
s
a
bove s
ea
l
ev
el
,
i
n
th
is
u
ni
qu
e a
nd d
ra
ma
ti
c
n
at
ur
al s
et
ti
ng
,
su
rr
ou
nd
ed
b
y
m
ou
ntai
ns
, fer
ti
le
p
la
in
s
a
nd
de
se
rt
.
E
ve
n the
l
ig
ht
s
eems
d
if
fere
nt
h
er
e,”
he
o
bs
er
ve
d.
Such a s
et
ti
ng, added
C
ar
re
ñ
o,
n
at
ur
al
ly
in
vites con
te
mp
la
ti
on
.
“G
ro
wi
ng
u
p
h
er
e,
you a
lways
w
o
n
-
dered
w
ha
t
w
as
o
n
t
he
oth
er
s
ide
o
f t
he
mounta
in
s,
” s
he
m
us
ed
. “It
i
s
a
p
lace
t
h
a
t
is
s
o i
nvit
ing
t
o m
ed
it
at
io
n
t
ha
t
it’s
ha
rd
ly
surpri
si
ng
i
t i
nfluenced
so
many
p
oe
ts
a
nd
ph
ilosophers
.”
La
te
r,
w
e l
oo
ke
d
u
p
m
od
ern
p
oe
t
Anto
ni
o
E
nriq
ue
,
f
ou
nd
er
of
G
ua
di
x’
s
m
on
thly
A
be
ntof
ai
l
Po
et
ry
W
or
ks
ho
p.
H
e
b
el
ieve
s
i
t
i
s
n
o
c
oi
ncid
en
ce
t
ha
t
H
ay
y
ib
n
Y
aq
za
n
fi
nd
s
h
is
e
nl
ig
ht
en
me
nt
i
n
a cav
e.
T
he
setti
ng
rec
a
l
ls
no
t
o
nl
y
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l’
s
c
hi
ld
ho
od
h
om
et
ow
n,
b
ut
a
ls
o
bot
h
t
he
P
rop
het M
uham
ma
d’
s
r
ev
elat
io
n
i
n
t
he
c
av
e
a
t
Mt.
H
ir
a,
nea
r
Ma
kkah
, a
nd
P
la
to’s
al
lego
ri
cal
c
av
e,
i
n
w
hi
ch
t
he ide
al
iz
e
d
p
hi
-
lo
soph
er
c
om
es
t
o und
er
stan
d
t
he
t
rue n
at
ur
e
o
f
r
e
ality
.
“The predominant Andalus
ian t
hought a
t
that tim
e
w
as
Pl
at
on
is
m,” said Enr
ique
. Existen
ce
was
r
egarde
d
as em
a
na
ti
ng
fr
om
a
s
ingle
sou
rc
e
,
t
he
“On
e
,
w
it
h w
ho
m t
he
s
o
u
l,
t
hr
ou
gh
the intellect, m
ay
be
r
eunited.
“J
ust
a
s
P
la
to
’s
p
hilo
so
pher
a
sc
en
ds f
ro
m
t
he
d
ar
kn
ess
o
f
t
he
“Ju
st
as Plato
’s
philosop
her
as
cends
fro
m th
e
darkn
ess
of th
e
ca
ve
and
emerges into the light
, so
to
o
Hayy
asc
end
s through various
st
age
s of
understanding, th
rou
gh experime
nta
-
tio
n
and conte
mpl
ation,
to
arriv
e at
an understanding
of
Go
d.”
—An
ton
io Enrique
TOM VERDE (2)
1,2,3,4,5,6 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,...52
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