Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 9

May/June 2014
7
m
n
g
n
or
th, s
ee
di
ng
t
h
e
i
nt
l
e
le
ctua
l
g
ar
den
o
f
l
at
e
m
ed
i-
W
es
te
rn
t
houg
ht
.
ar
ce
lo
na
’s his
to
ri
c
call
,” o
r
Je
wi
sh q
uart
er
,
is
a
co
nc
en
tr
ic
w
ar
ren o
f med
ie
va
l
s
to
ne,
a
s
t
ightly
pa
ck
ed
a
nd s
el
f-
co
nt
aine
d
as
a
s
et o
f
Rus
si
an
doll
s.
A
s
tr
ol
l t
hr
ou
gh i
ts
n
ar
ro
w
s
tr
ee
ts
,
w
ed
ge
d
be
tw
ee
n t
ow
erin
g,
g
ra
y,
b
lank
f
-
ac
ed
f
ac
ades,
i
s
a
s
oo
thin
g chang
e
o
f
p
ac
e
fro
m
t
he
f
re
nz
y
of t
he
c
it
y’
s
f
am
ed
p
e
de
st
r
i
an
w
al
kway
,
L
a
Ram
bl
a,
j
us
t
a
f
ew
b
lo
ck
s
w
est.
B
ut
duri
ng
t
he
m
id
-1
4t
h centu
ry
,
t
hese
s
tr
ee
ts
eve
n i
n
t
he
b
es
t
o
f
i
me
s—
we
re
a
ny
thin
g b
ut
q
ui
et
o
r
p
eace
fu
l.
“T
he
re was
l
ot
s o
f
a
ct
ivit
y h
er
e.
T
he
ca
ll
h
ad
m
any
but
ch
er
sh
ops, b
akerie
s,
fish
mo
ng
er
s,
wea
vers, merchants—a
ll
ser
v-
in
g
t
he
n
ee
ds
of
B
ar
ce
lo
na
’s
J
ew
is
h com
muni
ty
,
whi
ch
w
as
the
la
rg
es
t
i
n
a
ll
o
f
A
ra
gon,”
s
aid E
ul
al
ia
V
er
ne
t,
a
n e
du
ca
tor
w
it
h
th
e
C
al
l
I
nterpretive
Cen
te
r.
“B
ut
t
he
c
en
te
rs o
f
r
itualist
ic
lif
e,
a
nd
the s
et
ti
ng
s
for i
n-
te
l
l
ec
tu
al
d
eb
at
es
,
w
er
e
the
s
yn
ag
og
ues,” Ver
ne
t
s
ai
d,
as we
pa
us
ed b
esid
e t
he
s
it
e
o
f
t
he cal
l’
s
sma
llest, the a
pt
ly
n
med
S
i
na
go
ga
P
oc
a
(“S
mall
S
yn
ag
og
ue
”)
,
n
ow
a
C
hr
isti
an
c
ha
pel.
Am
on
g t
he m
ore c
on
te
nt
io
us d
eb
at
es t
hat r
oc
ked and
ot
her s
yn
ag
ogues
d
ur
in
g
the
1
4t
h
cen
tu
ry
was the
s
o-
ca
lled
Co
nt
ro
ve
rsia
d
e Maimo
ni
de
s
,
o
r Mai
mo
nidean c
on
tr
oversy.
Na
me
d
f
or
t
he
1
2th-
ce
ntur
y
C
ór
do
ba
n Jew
is
h
p
hilo
sopher
a
nd
ra
tionalist
M
os
es
M
ai
mo
ni
de
s, t
he
c
on
tr
ov
er
sy
p
os
ed
q
ue
st
io
ns
that
bor
e
s
tr
iking
s
im
il
aritie
s
to
t
hose r
aised
b
y
I
bn
T
uf
ay
l:
To
wh
at e
xten
t
i
s
r
at
io
nali
sm
an a
cc
ep
ta
bl
e
p
at
h
t
o
und
er
st
anding
Go
d,
and
a
t
what
p
oint
d
oes
i
t
s
pill o
ve
r
i
nto
h
er
es
y?
O
n o
ne
si
de
wer
e adv
oc
ates
o
f
M
ai
mo
nides,
m
an
y c
en
te
re
d
t
o
t
he
north
in Per
pi
gn
an
,
i
n
w
ha
t is n
ow
sou
th
er
n
F
ra
nc
e,
w
ho
s
ou
gh
t
to
h
ar
mo
ni
ze
Jud
ai
sm
w
it
h
A
rist
otelian
r
atio
na
li
sm
.
O
n
t
he
ot
her
w
er
e
ortho
do
x
s
uppo
rt
er
s
o
f B
ar
celona’s
chi
ef
rab
bi
,
w
ho
sh
ar
ed t
he
con
ce
rn
t
ha
t s
uc
h
t
hi
nk
in
g
l
ed Jews a
stra
y
f
ro
m
f
aith
.
Jo
inin
g
t
hi
s
con
tr
over
sy
w
as a J
ew
ish phi
lo
so
ph
er
a
nd
d
oc
-
to
r
f
ro
m
P
er
pi
gn
an
,
M
os
es
N
ar
bo
ni
. He
a
rriv
ed
i
n B
ar
ce
lona
in
1
348,
e
nt
e
r
in
g
t
he
c
all thr
ough
i
ts
e
as
te
rn
gat
e, a
h
un
dr
ed
mete
rs (
ya
rd
s) o
r
so from
w
here V
erne
t
and
I s
tood
.
F
lu
en
t in
La
tin, C
as
ti
li
an
and P
ro
venç
al F
re
nc
h,
r
ea
di
ng
b
ot
h
Heb
rew
an
d
A
ra
bi
c,
N
arbo
ni beg
an s
tudy
in
g
M
ai
mo
ni
des
a
t
a
ge
1
3,
purs
ue
d
m
ed
ic
in
e
a
nd
w
ro
te
B
ibli
cal a
nd
p
hilo
so
ph
ic
al
c
om
-
me
ntarie
s. He
ref
ut
ed
Mai
mo
nide
s’
s Neo
-P
la
to
ni
sm
in f
avor
of A
ri
st
ot
le
’s
s
ci
en
tific
d
octrin
es
.
His
a
rg
um
en
ts
fol
lo
we
d
l
in
es
fa
mi
li
ar
t
o
b
ot
h
Ibn
T
uf
ayl’s
p
redecess
or
,
I
bn
B
aj
ja
h,
a
nd
s
uc
-
ce
ss
or
,
Ibn
Rus
hd
. In
a
later comment
ar
y on I
bn
Rus
hd
, N
ar
-
bo
ni
d
ec
la
re
d
h
is
i
nt
enti
on
t
o wri
te a
c
om
me
ntar
y
on
Ha
yy
ibn
Y
aq
za
n
in ord
er
to
e
xami
ne “
th
e
r
eg
ime
o
f
s
olitud
e”
as a
me
an
s
t
o
co
mm
un
ion with
God
.”
So
me s
ch
ol
ars
h
ave attribu
te
d the first H
eb
re
w
t
ra
ns
la
ti
on
of
H
a
yy
t
o
Narbo
ni
,
altho
ug
h other
s
q
ue
st
io
n
t
he
pro
fic
ie
ncy
of
h
is
Ara
bi
c.
I
n
eithe
r cas
e,
h
e wor
ke
d
fro
m
a
H
eb
re
w t
ra
ns
la
-
ti
on
that
m
ig
ht w
el
l
h
ave
b
ee
n
r
eadily
a
va
il
ab
le
i
n
t
he
c
it
y tha
t,
du
ring
t
he
m
id
-1
4th
c
en
tury
,
w
as
o
ne
o
f
s
ev
e
r
a
l
h
av
en
s
for
An
da
lu
si
an
J
e
w
is
h
s
ch
ol
ar
s
fl
ee
in
g
t
he
p
erse
cu
ti
on
tha
t,
u
nd
er
th
e
A
lm
oh
ad
s,
s
tood in
s
ta
rk
contr
as
t
t
o t
he
t
ol
er
an
ce
they
h
ad
ex
pe
ri
en
ced u
nd
er t
he
p
re
vi
ous A
lmor
avid regime.
T
o
C
at
alon
ia and P
ro
ve
nc
e,
t
o B
ar
ce
lo
na
,
Girona
a
nd Nar
-
bo
nn
e,
c
am
e
m
an
y J
ew
is
h
i
nt
el
le
ct
ua
ls f
ro
m
And
al
us
ia
w
ho
tr
an
sl
at
ed
the wor
ks of
t
he
A
ra
b
p
hy
s
ici
an
s,
p
hilo
so
ph
er
s
a
nd
as
tr
on
om
e
rs
i
nt
o
He
br
ew
,”
s
ai
d
Silv
ia
P
la
na
s,
co
-a
ut
hor
of
A
Hi
st
or
y
o
f J
ewis
h
Ca
talo
ni
a
.
It
was
not s
ur
pris
in
g,
Pl
an
as
t
ol
d
m
e,
th
at
N
ar
bo
ni
wo
uld
cho
os
e
Ba
rc
el
ona
a
s the
place
t
o
wri
te
hi
s
com
me
ntary,
whic
h
he
calle
d
Yehiel B
en
-U
riel
(
Lo
ng
L
iv
e God
,
So
n
o
f
t
he Vig
i-
la
nt God
).
In i
t,
Narbo
ni
bese
ec
hed G
od
to
met
ap
hori
-
ca
lly
co
nd
uc
t
hi
m to
t
he
i
sl
e
o
f
feli
ci
ty
”—me
an
-
in
g
Hay
y’
s
i
sl
and. I
n
h
is
e
stimat
io
n,
Ha
yy
i
bn
Y
aqza
n
pro
vi
de
d
an
ex
pl
an
at
ion
o
f t
he
n
at
ur
e
o
f
t
he
a
pp
r
ehe
ns
ion
a
ch
ie
ve
d
wh
en
m
an’s
[
ea
rt
hl
y] i
nt
el
le
ct
i
s
conjoin
ed
with t
he
a
ct
iv
e
[
et
er
-
n
a
l,
D
iv
in
e]
i
nt
el
le
ct
.”
H
e
c
oncl
ud
ed
t
ha
t I
bn T
uf
ayl p
ro
ve
d
t
ha
t
su
ch
co
nj
un
ct
io
n”
w
as
p
os
sibl
e i
f
t
he
per
so
n seeking
i
t
c
an
,
b
y
re
ason
a
nd
m
et
ho
di
ca
l e
ff
or
t,
d
ro
wn
o
ut
the
cla
mo
r o
f
s
oc
iety
.
Ye
hiel B
en
-U
ri
el
b
ec
am
e
s
om
ethi
ng
of a b
es
t-seller
i
n
N
ar
-
bo
ni
’s
o
wn
l
if
et
im
e
a
nd
t
here
af
te
r,
c
on
si
de
ri
ng
tha
t
m
or
e
cop
-
ie
s
o
f
i
t
sur
vi
ve
t
ha
n
a
ny
o
f
h
is
other w
or
ks
.
A
mong
t
he
m
i
s
a
heavil
y
m
ar
ke
d-
up
e
diti
on
t
hat
bel
on
ge
d t
o a
n I
talian
J
ew
is
h
hu
ma
ni
st
f
ro
m
C
on
st
an
ti
no
pl
e
named
Yoh
an
an
Ale
ma
nn
o,
wh
o found
h
im
se
lf
in
F
lo
re
nc
e
in
t
he lat
e
1
5t
h
c
en
tury
.
L
ik
e
many
t
eacher
-sch
ol
ar
s o
f
h
is
g
en
er
at
ion,
h
e
was i
n
s
ea
rc
h
o
f
empl
oy
me
nt
,
s
crou
ngin
g
f
or
c
ru
mb
s
at the t
ables o
f
t
he
f
ab
u-
lo
us
ly
w
ea
lt
hy F
lore
ntin
e
b
an
ki
ng
f
am
il
ies.
A
mo
ng
A
le
ma
nn
o’
s
pu
pi
ls w
as
G
io
va
nn
i
P
ic
o
d
el
la
Mir
an
do
la
,
a
han
dsom
e
y
ou
ng
ar
is
to
cr
at a
nd
a
f
avor
it
e
of t
he
c
ity’
s r
ul
er
a
nd
p
atron
o
f
t
he
ar
ts
,
Lorenzo de Med
ici.
O
ne
o
f
t
he e
ar
li
es
t
o
f
the R
en
aiss
an
ce
hu
mani
st
s
a
nd
p
hi
lo
so
phers,
P
ic
o s
ha
re
d
m
an
y
i
nt
er
es
ts
w
it
h
hi
s
teacher
,
inc
lu
di
ng a
fon
dn
ess
f
or
a
b
oo
k
t
o
w
hi
ch
A
le
ma
n-
no
i
ntro
du
ce
d
him:
Ha
yy
ibn
Y
aqzan
.
ai
n
pel
te
d
t
he
s
tr
ee
ts
o
f
F
lo
re
nce
a
s
I
o
rb
it
e
d
Il D
uomo,
t
he
c
it
y’s
l
andm
ar
k
c
at
he
dr
al
,
a
s
ym
-
ph
on
y
o
f
jad
e
a
nd
i
vory
m
ar
bl
e r
isin
g t
o
t
he
te
rra-
co
tta c
re
sc
en
do
o
f B
ru
ne
ll
es
ch
i’
s f
am
ou
s
do
me. C
ro
ss
in
g the
n
ei
gh
bo
ri
ng P
ia
zz
a
d
el
la
Si
gn
or
ia,
I
g
ave
t
he
rep
li
ca
of M
ic
he
la
ng
elo’
s
Da
vid
a n
od
(
th
e
or
ig
inal
w
as
moved
i
nd
oors i
n
1
873)
o
n
m
y
w
ay
t
o
a
no
th
er
o
f
Fl
or
en
ce
’s
a
tt
ra
ct
io
ns
, t
he
Ufiz
zi
Pal
ac
e
a
nd
G
al
lery
.
I was s
ea
rchi
ng
f
or the Ufiz
z
i
’s
p
or
tr
ai
t
of
P
ic
o.
H
an
gi
ng
near
ly
o
ut o
f s
ig
ht
a
t
c
ei
li
ng
l
ev
el
, a
cr
os
s t
he
hal
l
f
ro
m
o
ne
o
f
th
e m
us
eu
m’
s s
tar a
tt
ra
ct
ions
,
B
ot
tice
ll
i’s
Bi
rt
h
o
f V
en
us
,
P
ic
o
do
es
n’
t a
tt
ract
m
an
y
a
dm
ir
er
s the
se
d
ay
s.
B
ut
at one
t
im
e,
t
hi
s
yo
ut
h
with
c
he
st
nu
t
l
oc
ks
t
umbl
in
g
f
ro
m
h
is
c
he
rr
y-
re
d,
f
elt
Lea
rne
d in Greek
, Roman
, Je
wish
an
d
Is
lam
ic
sou
rce
s,
Florenti
ne
human
ist
Gi
ov
anni
Pi
co
de
lla
Mir
andola
saw
in
Hay
y
Ib
n
Yaqza
n
a
co
mpa
ct
all
ego
ry for
th
e es
sen
tia
l ro
les of
se
lf-
dis
cip
lin
e
and
obser
vat
ion in
th
e
se
arc
h
fo
r
tr
uth
.
i
gr
at
i
eval
t
t
a
hi
s
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