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A t l a n t i c O c e a n

Adriatic Sea

Tyrrhenian Sea

S

t

r

a

i

t

o

f

G

i

b

r

a

l

t

a

r

(

P

i

l

l

a

r

s

o

f

H

e

r

c

u

l

e

s

)

Sardinia

Sicily

Malta

ETRURIA

IBERIA

Utica

Cádiz/Gadir

Leptis Magna

Seville/Spal

Cagliari

Málaga

Rachgoun

Massalia

Carthage

Top:

Around 700

bce

, the Phoenician

settlement of Spal, a predecessor of

Seville, Spain, was large and established

enough that its priests used this

sumptuous, intricate and heavy gold

necklace for rituals. Part of the four-piece

Carambalo treasure, it shows the high

art that Phoenicia spread throughout the

Mediterranean.

Right:

Dated slightly earlier

and resembling others fromGreece and

Anatolia is a bronze cauldron

from Tomb

79 in Salamis, Cyprus, that features eight

griffin and four siren-men protomes.

Far

right:

Under Ashurnasirpal

ii

, the Neo-

Assyrian empire began its expansion west

to the Mediterranean. This 113-centimeter

(44 ½") magnesite statue is a rare

sculpture in the round from the period.

2

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