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Painted by blowing ocher-based

pigment over a hand, stencil-

paintings in more than 100

South Sulawesi caves vary in

age from some 10,000 to nearly

40,000 years old, and alongside

many of them are images of

animals and fish that are just as

old. Photo by Meridith Kohut.

aramcoworld.com

May/June 2015

Vol. 66, No. 3

We distribute

AramcoWorld

to increase cross-cultural

understanding by broadening knowledge of the histories,

cultures and geography of the Arab and Muslim worlds

and their global connections. In print,

AramcoWorld

is

distributed six times a year, without charge, to a limited

number of interested readers; online, it is archived and

indexed from 1960 to the present.

Back Cover

Graphic testament to three

centuries of publishing, not only in

Arabic but also in many far lesser-

known languages, this panel of 24

esoteric typographical characters

greets visitors to the offices of

Brill publishing in Leiden, the

Netherlands. Photo by Tom Verde.

Publisher

Saudi Arabian

Oil Company

President and CEO

Khalid A. Al-Falih

Executive Director

Corporate Affairs

Nasser A. Al-Nafisee

General Manager

Public Affairs

Essam Z. Tawfiq

Manager

Public Relations

Ali M. Al-Mutairi

Editor

Richard Doughty

Assistant Editors

Arthur P. Clark

Alva Robinson

Digital Media Editor

Johnny Hanson

Circulation

Edna Catchings

Administration

Sarah Miller

Print Design

and Production

Graphic Engine Design

Printed in the USA

RR Donnelley/Wetmore

Digital Design

and Production

eSiteful Corporation

Online Translations

Transperfect

Contacts

Subscriptions: [email protected] Editorial: [email protected]

Mail:

AramcoWorld

Post Office Box 5000

Dhahran 31311,

Saudi Arabia

ISSN

1530-5821

Cave Artists of Sulawesi

Written by GrahamChandler

|

Photographs and video by Meridith Kohut

When a hand stencil-painting in the caves on this island recently dated to 39,900 years

ago, Indonesia took a place alongside France and Spain as a site of the earliest

known representational art. Now we must ask not only how and why we began

making pictures, but how and why we did so on two continents, at the same time.

2

14

20

Saudi Aramco and Aramco are trademarks of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company,

a leading, globally integrated energy and chemicals company.

Capital

of Baklava

Written by Gail Simmons

|

Photographed by George Azar

In a city where baklava chefs train for 10 years, you know dessert-

making is being taken seriously. Add competition from 500 other

baklava specialists, and you can only be in Gaziantep, Turkey.

May/June2015

aramcoworld.com

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Cave

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Coins of Two Realms

Written by Clive Foss

When Arab Muslims came to rule formerly Byzantine lands

in the mid-seventh century

ce

, they continued using local

coins and only gradually issued their own: The story was

similar in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Persia. Viewed through a

numismatist’s magnifying glass, it was an age not only of conflict

and change, but also of accommodation and pragmatism.

Publisher

Aramco Services Company

9009 West Loop South

Houston, Texas 77096

USA

President

Nab el M. Amudi

Director

Public Affairs

Ali M. Al Mutairi

Editor

Richard Doughty

Assistant Editor

Arthur P. Clark

Circulation

Edna Catchings

Administration

Sarah Miller

Print Design

and Production

Graphic Engine Design

Printed in the USA

RR Donnelley Houston

Digital Design

and Production

eSiteful Corporation

Address editorial

correspondence to:

The Editor

Saudi Aramco World Post Office Box 2106 Houston, Texas 77252-2106 USA

ISSN

1530-5821

Publisher

Aramco Services Company

ident

Basil A. Abul-Hamayel

Direc or

Public Affairs

Alma S. Kombargi

Edito

Richard Doughty

Assistant Editors

rthur P. Clark

Alva Robinson

D gital Media Editor

Johnny Hanson

Circulation

Edna Catchings

Administration

Sarah Miller

Print Design

and Production

Graphic Engine Design

Printed in the USA

RR Donnelley/Wetmore

Digital Design

and Production

eSiteful Corporation

Online Translati s

Transperfect

Co tacts

Subscriptions:

[email protected] Editorial: [email protected] Mail:

AramcoWorld

Post Office Box 2106

Houston, Texas

77252-2106 USA

ISSN

1530-5821