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Volume 35, Number 6 November/December 1984

In This Issue

November/December 1984
Bitumen - A History
Written by Zayn Bilkadi
Illustrated by Michael Grimsdale

The Sumerians called it esir, the Akkadians called it iddu and in the ancient world - as in the modern - it was a vital and valuable substance: asphalt, the first petroleum product used by man.

The Ghosts at Gallipoli
Written by Malcolm P. Stevens
Photographs courtesy of Imperial War Museum

On the eve of the 70th anniversary of the Allied landings at Gallipoli, a descendant of one of the men who died there returned to the scene of the bloody World War I battles to make his peace with the Turks.

The Little House on the – Desert
Written by William Holtz
Illustrated by Norman MacDonald

In real life, Rose, the granddaughter in TV's "Little House on the Prairie" was the descendant of a crusader, a correspondent in Vietnam, and a writer who once faced death in the Syrian desert.

Mesopotamia – Some Notes
Written and photographed by Michael Spencer

Sumerians and Akkadians, Babylonians and Assyrians, Parthians and Sasanids, they all left their mark on modern-day Iraq: an ancient presence no museum could ever hope to recreate.

The Orientalists
Written by June Taboroff
Photographs courtesy of National Gallery of Art

At Washington's National Gallery of Art this year, an exhibition of a phenomenon called "Orientalism" showed the rich treatment accorded the Middle East by western artists.