Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 12

10
Saudi Aramco World
su
pe
rv
is
io
n
o
f
h
is
fa
th
er
,
e
st
ee
med Ox-
f
o
rd
A
ra
bist E
dw
ar
d
Po
co
ck
e.
T
he s
en
io
r
Po
co
ck
e
h
ad
e
nc
oun-
te
re
d t
he
t
e
x
t
4
0
ye
ars e
ar
li
er
,
w
h
e
n
he
p
ur
ch
as
ed
a
1
4th-
ce
ntur
y A
rabi
c c
op
y
of
Ha
yy
in
Ale
pp
o,
wh
il
e
s
e
r
vi
ng
a
s
chap
lain
t
he
re f
or
th
e Levan
t
C
ompa
-
ny,
a
n
E
ng
li
sh
t
ra
d-
in
g o
ut
fit c
ha
rt
er
ed
by
Q
ue
en
Eli
za
be
th
I
.
P
oc
oc
ke
l
ived
i
n
th
e
c
om
p ny
’s
r
e-
gi
on
al
adq
ua
rt
er
s,
a
fu
nduq
i
n
A
ra
bi
c,
t
h
at
had a “
si
ze
ab
le
librar
y
… [
wh
er
e]
th
e
chapl
ai
ns
h
ad
am
ple
t
im
e
t
o devote
to
r
es
earch,
t
o exp
lo
-
ra
ti
on a
nd
t
o
c
ol
le
ct
-
in
g
manus
cr
ip
ts
and
he
t
iq
ui
tie
or
d ng t
o
s
cholar
Ala
st
ai
r
H
am
ilto
n
in
h
i
s
T
g
lis
h
r
es
t i
n
t
he A
ra
bi
c-Speaki
ng
C
hr
is
-
t
i
a
H o
n
obs
er
ved,
So
me
of
t
he
fi
rs
t
E
ng
-
sh
c
n
bi
c
a
nd Syr
iac
m
an
us
cr
ipts
w
er
e
m
ad
e
b
y
m
e
n
w
ho
e
d
a
t
Ale
pp
o.
In
a
dd
it
io
n
t
o
g
ra
ti
fy
in
g h
is
own
a
pp
et
it
e
f
or A
ra
bi
c
l
it
er
a-
tu
re
,
P
oc
oc
ke
sna
pp
ed
u
p
Ha
yy
a
nd
o
th
er
b
oo
ks
a
t t
he
b
eh
es
t
of
h
is
f
ri
end
a
nd
b
en
ef
ac
to
r W
il
liam
L
au
d, Archb
is
hop o
f
Can
-
te
rb
ur
y,
who
w
as als
o
t
h
e
m
an
w
ho
l
ater
a
pp
oint
ed
h
im
to
t
he
Ar
ab
ic
c
hair
a
t
O
xford.
I
n a l
et
te
r
t
o P
ococke
i
n
1
63
1, L
au
d
as
ke
d
h
is
f
ri
en
d
t
o buy
su
ch
man
us
cr
ip
ts
,
e
it
he
r
in
Gre
ek
o
r
th
e
O
ri
en
ta
l
l
angu
ag
es
a
s
i
n
[
yo
ur] j
udgement
m
ay
b
e
s
t
befi
t
a
n
u
ni
ve
rs
it
y lib
ra
ry.”
Th
e
u
ni
versity
l
ibrary
L
aud
ha
d
i
n
min
d w
as
O
xford’s
Bo
dl
ei
an
,
w
he
re
Pococke’s
do
na
ti
on
s a
re t
od
ay a
mo
ng
th
e
i
ns
ti
tuti
on
’s r
ic
h
a
ss
ort-
me
nt
o
f
M
id
dl
e
Eastern and
I
sl
am
ic
m
an
us
cr
ipts
. I
ts curat
or,
A
l
as
da
ir
W
at
son, w
as
kind
e
noug
h
t
o e
xh
ume the med
ie
va
l
co
py
o
f
Ha
yy
tog
et
he
r wit
h P
ococ
ke Jr.’s first
e
dition
,
a
nd h
e
le
t
m
e
t
hu
mb
t
hr
ou
gh
b
oth.
I
n
t
ha
t
1
4t
h-
cent
ur
y
o
ri
gina
l,
t
he
ha
nd
i
s
m
et
ic
ul
ou
s,
m
arre
d o
nl
y here
and
the
re
b
y
a
l
at
er
read-
er
’s
a
ccide
n
ta
l smu
dg
e
a
nd
t
he
e
lder
P
oc
oc
ke
’s
n
ot
at
io
ns
.
“I
t i
s
in
a
v
er
y fi
ne
,
b
ea
ut
iful scr
ipt,
n
ot
c
arel
es
s
i
n
any
wa
y,
W
at
so
n
remar
ke
d.
Equ
al
ly
w
ell
p
re
se
rved
w
as
t
he
Ph
il
os
op
hu
s
a
ut
odid
ac
ti
cus
,
wit
h
i
ts
v
er
so Latin
a
nd
r
ec
to
Ar
ab
ic
p
ag
es
l
ying
o
pp
osite
o
ne a
no
th
er, qui
te
l
ik
e
t
he
c
ul-
tu
ra
l
reg
io
ns
o
f
t
he
m
edie
va
l w
or
ld
t
he l
an
gu
ag
es
t
hemsel
ves
repr
es
en
te
d.
T
o
m
en
l
ik
e
t
he
P
ococ
ke
s,
exp
os
ur
e
t
o
A
ra
bic
t
ex
ts
he
lp
ed
c
re
at
e
n
ecessary
b
ri
dg
es
b
et
we
en
E
as
t
a
nd W
es
t.
De
ma
nd
for
texts,
a
nd
f
or
k
no
wl
ed
ge
of
A
ra
bi
c,
a
s L
a
u
d’
s
re
ques
t
indic
at
ed
,
w
as
a
lr
ea
dy
bui
ldin
g.
A
s
s
chol
ar
G
.
A
.
Russ
l
e
l
o
bser
ve
d
in
Th
e
Ar
ab
ic
k’
I
nt
er
es
t
o
f
t
h
e
N
at
ur
al
Ph
il
os
ophe
rs
i
n
S
even
teen
th
-C
en
tu
ry E
ng
land
,
t
he
p
rimacy
of the
Bib
le
as
t
he
s
ourc
e
of
d
oc
tr
in
e”
a
mo
ng
P
rotest
an
ts
“l
ed
t
o
the
i
mp
ortanc
e of
t
ex
tu
al
a
cc
ur
ac
y
f
or
t
heolog
ic
al
in
te
rp
re
ta
ti
on,” w
hi
ch
m
eant
b
ei
ng
a
bl
e to r
ea
d
H
eb
re
w
as
we
ll
a
s
Ara
bic,
its
c
lo
se grammat
ical
a
nd lex
ical
c
ou
si
n.
F
or
se
cula
r
sch
ol
ar
s, a
cces
s
t
o
a
nc
ie
nt
Gre
ek
m
ed
ic
al
s
ci
enti
fic
an
d
t
ec
hn
ic
al
t
exts
t
ra
ns
la
te
d
into Arabic
d
urin
g
t
he
M
id
dl
e
Ages
w
as
a
ls
o
e
ssen
ti
al
.
L
as
tly,
as
a
ny L
ev
ant
C
om
pa
ny
me
rc
hant
s
ta
ti
on
ed
i
n
A
le
ppo,
I
stan
bu
l,
C
ai
ro
o
r
ew
here
in
t
he
M
id
dl
e E
as
t
would a
tt
est,
p
ro
fic
ie
nc
y
i
n
A
r
as
simply
g
oo
d
f
or b
usin
es
s
. A
g
en
er
at
io
n
l
ater
,
Sim
on O
k
ey,
fif
th c
ha
ir
o
f
A
ra
bi
c
a
t
C
am
br
id
ge
a
nd a
s
tude
nt
of the
e
ld
er
Po
co
ck
e,
s
co
ld
ed
:
Sh
ame
on
u
s, a
nation
fam
ous
t
hr
ough
-
ou
t
t
he
w
or
ld
f
or our
p
ur
su
it
of l
ea
rn
in
g, tha
t
w
e sho
ul
d
ha
ve s
o
f
ew
s
cholar
s
d
ed
ic
at
ing
t
he
ms
el
ve
s
e
arne
stly to
th
es
e
stu
di
es.”
Th
e publica
ti
on
in
E
ngland
o
f
Hayy
i
bn
Y
aqza
n
w
as
a
bo
ut
to
chang
e
a
ll o
f
t
hat.
A
lmost
a
s good a pub
li
cist
a
s
h
e
was
a
sc
ho
la
r,
P
ococ
ke
wasted no
t
im
e
in
c
ir
cu
lati
ng
h
is
s
on
’s
b
oo
k
am
ong
h
is f
el
lo
w O
rien
ta
li
st
s
o
n
t
he C
ontinent
H
e als
o
s
en
t i
t
to
m
em
be
rs
o
f
the
R
oy
al
S
oc
ie
ty
a
nd
s
cien
ti
st
s
a
br
oad.
The b
oo
k
w
as
a
h
it
. In
a
l
et
ter
t
o Poc
o
c
ke
,
t
he
s
ecre
tary
t
o
the
Bri
ti
sh
E
mb
as
sy
i
n Par
is
r
egre
tt
ed
h
e
d
id
n
ot h
av
e
m
or
e
co
pi
es t
o d
istrib
ut
e
.
S
ch
ol
ar
s
v
isit
ing O
xf
o
r
d
b
eg
ge
d
P
ococke
for copie
s
o
n b
eh
al
f
o
f c
olle
ag
ue
s
and
l
umin
ar
ies a
br
oad
who
he
ar
d
o
f i
t. A
S
wi
ss s
chol
ar s
tu
dy
ing under
Poc
oc
ke asked f
or
a cop
y
f
or
a
F
re
nc
h
b
is
hop
w
ho
u
po
n
he
ar
in
g o
f t
he
b
oo
k
impa
ti
en
tl
y
exp
ec
te
d it,
” a
ccor
ding
t
o
P
ococ
ke
’s
b
iographe
r,
Le
onar
d
Twe
ll
s.
No
t
surpr
is
in
gl
y, mor
e
t
ra
ns
la
ti
on
s and edi
ti
on
s f
ol
lo
we
d,
be
gi
nning w
ith a
D
ut
ch
transla
ti
on
p
ub
li
sh
ed
i
n
A
mste
rd
am
in
1672,
f
ollo
we
d
b
y
a
s
ec
on
d
Dutch
e
di
ti
on
i
n
170
1. Many
ha
ve spe
cu
la
te
d that t
he ratio
na
list
p
hi
lo
sopher Bar
uch
S
pi
-
noza w
as
t
he tra
ns
la
to
r. T
wo y
ea
rs
l
at
er
,
Sco
ts
man G
eorg
e
Ke
it
h
use
d
P
oc
oc
ke
’s
Arabi
c-
Latin
edi
ti
on to
p
rodu
ce
the
fir
st
E
ng
lish
t
ra
ns
la
ti
on—w
hi
ch
h
ad
i
ts f
ault
s.
In
o
ne
s
ig-
nific
an
t
b
lund
er, K
ei
th
m
is
-
tr
an
slat
ed
t
he
Arabi
c
za
by
a
(d
oe
)
a
s
“sh
e-
go
at
,” a
n
e
rror
fu
rthe
r amp
li
fie
d
b
y
ill
u
s
tra-
t
i
on
s dep
ic
ti
ng
y
ou
ng H
ay
y
suckle
d
by a
g
oa
t.
A
tt
ar and
Ba
ro
ud s
ug
ge
st t
ha
t D
ef
oe m
ay
h
ave consu
lt
ed
o
n
e
o
f
t
he
se
ed
it
ions
b
ec
ause C
ru
so
e
i
s
s
us
ta
in
ed b
y,
a
mo
ng
o
ther
cre
a-
tu
res,
a
herd
o
f
goa
ts
.
No
ne
th
eles
s,
Kei
th
,
a
promi
ne
nt
Q
ua
ke
r,
f
ou
nd
i
n
H
ay
y’
s
ta
le
m
an
y
pr
ofi
ta
bl
e
thing
s
a
gr
eeab
le
t
o
Chr
is
ti
an
p
ri
nc
ip
le
s
,
as
h
e
wro
te
in
h
is
i
nt
r
odu
ction.
N
ot
l
east of
the
se was t
he w
ay
Ib
n
T
ufay
l
show
eth
e
xcellently h
ow
f
ar
t
he
k
nowl
ed
ge
o
f
m
an
wh
os
e
e
ye
s a
re s
pi
ri
tual
ly o
pe
ne
d,
d
if
fe
reth f
ro
m
that
k
no
wl
-
edge
tha
t
m
en a
cq
ui
re
s
im
pl
y b
y
hea
r-
say,
o
r
r
ea
ding
.” T
hi
s
line o
f
t
hi
nkin
g—
a
l
ine
t
hat
e
xt
en
ded
d
ir
ec
tl
y back
thr
ou
gh
Pico to Nar
boni,
I
bn
Tufayl and
h
is
o
wn intelle
ct
ual predece
s-
so
rs
—ali
gn
ed
w
it
h
t
he
Q
ua
ker
b
elie
f
in the
doc
tr
ine o
f
I
nn
er
(o
r
Inw
ar
d)
L
ig
ht
,
t
ha
t
i
s,
savi
ng
L
ight
a
nd
g
ra
c
e
,”
whi
ch
sh
in
es w
it
hi
n
e
very
h
uman
b
ei
ng
,
as
K
ei
th
’s
c
ol
le
ag
ue
,
R
ob
-
li
ot
r
a
n
s
,”
a
cc
i
e
ss
ay
“ h
e
E
n
I
nte
n
s.
I
ndee
d,
a
s
am
il
t
o
l
le
ct
io
s
of
A
ra
h
ad
w
or
k
a
h
e
,
.
e
ls
a
b
i
c
w
c
l
Beyond the many plot similarities,
Crusoe’s reflections deeply echo Hayy’s.
i
s
n
o
fi
r
m
evidence that the
co
mm
er
ci
ally
a
nd
s
ocially
a
mbitio
us
Da
ni
el
D
ef
oe a
ctually
o
wned a c
op
y
o
f
Ib
n
T
uf
ay
l’
s
t
a
le. Yet it
s
tands to r
e
a
son
th
at
a
t
the
v
er
y lea
st
,
he
would h
av
e
be
en
c
on
ve
rsa
n
t
with the book that
wa
s
a
n
E
nl
ig
h
t
en
ment-era
equ
al
en
t
iv
of
a
n
O
pr
ah s
e
lection
.
1...,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,...52
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