Saudi Aramco World: May/June 2014 - page 13

May/June 2014
11
er
t
B
ar
cl
ay
,
p
ut
i
t. In h
is
Apol
og
y
F
or
The
Tr
ue
Chr
is
tian Div
in
it
y
,
a
n
e
ar
ly
Q
ua
ke
r
ma
ni
fe
st
o,
B
ar
cl
ay
s
in
gl
ed
o
ut
a
nd
pra
is
ed
t
h
e
s
to
ry
tr
an
slat
ed
out
o
f
t
he
Ara
bi
ck
o
f
o
ne
H
ai
E
bn
Y
okdan
w
ho
,
wit
ho
ut
co
nv
er
se
o
f
m
an
, liv
in
g i
n
an
I
sl
an
d alo
ne
,
at
ta
in
ed t
o
s
uc
h a
p
ro
foun
d
k
no
wl
ed
ge o
f
Go
d,
a
s t
o
h
av
e immedia
te
c
on
ve
rs
e
w
it
h
him,
a
nd
to
a
ffi
rm
,
t
ha
t
t
he
b
es
t
a
nd
mos
t
ce
rt
ain kno
wl
ed
ge
o
f G
od
i
s
n
ot
t
hat, which
is
att
ai
ne
d
b
y
pre
mi
se
s
p
re
mi
se
d,
and c
on
-
cl
us
io
ns
ded
uc
ed
,
b
ut
t
ha
t,
w
hi
ch
i
s
e
nj
oy
ed
by
c
on
junc
tion o
f t
he
min
d
o
f
m
an
,
w
ith
th
e sup
re
me
I
ntel
le
ct
.”
Th
ou
gh
n
ot
h
im
se
lf
a
p
rofe
ss
ed Quake
r,
De
fo
e
w
as
e
du
ca
te
d
i
n
a
Q
ua
ke
r
s
ch
oo
l
at
N
ew
ingt
on
G
reen
,
j
us
t
d
own
t
he roa
d
f
r
om
t
he hou
se
i
n
Sto
ke
N
ew
in
gton,
an
d
he
c
ounted
Q
ua
ke
rs
a
mo
ng
h
is
fri
ends
an
d nei
ghbo
rs
.
If
he
d
id
not r
ead
K
eith
’s
tr
an
sl
at
io
n
o
f
Ha
yy
,
h
e
mig
ht well hav
e
been f
am
iliar w
it
h
a
lat
er
E
ng
li
sh tra
nsla
-
ti
on b
y
Catho
l
i
c
v
ic
ar Geo
rg
e
A
shwe
ll,
o
r
Oc
k
l
ey
’s,
pub
lished in
1
70
8,
1
1 yea
rs
pri
or
to t
he
pub
li
ca
ti
on
o
f
Ro
bi
ns
on
Cru
so
e
.
Liberally l
if
ting
from
the y
oung
er P
oc
oc
ke’s
ori
ginal,
sub
st
an
ti
al
sub
ti
tl
e,
O
ckle
y’
s
ow
n
r
ea
d:
Th
e
i
mp
ro
veme
nt
o
f
h
um
an
r
ea
son
i
n w
hi
ch is
de
mo
ns
trat
ed b
y
w
ha
t
metho
ds
o
ne
may
,
b
y
t
he
m
er
e
l
ig
ht o
f
na
ture,
a
ttain the
k
no
wl
edge
o
f
t
hings n
atur
al
a
nd
s
up
ernatu
-
ra
l;
mor
e par
ti
c
ularl
y
t
he
kno
wl
ed
ge
o
f
G
od.”
This w
as
n
ot o
nl
y
a
Q
ua
ke
r
cre
do
,
b
ut
als
o
a
f
un
dame
nt
al
pr
inci
pl
e
o
f
t
he
Enl
ig
ht
en
me
nt
t
ha
t
s
po
ke
to
t
he k
ey
i
ss
ue
s
of
the
d
ay:
the r
at
io
na
l
i
nquiry
i
nt
o t
he
n
atur
e o
f
e
xi
sten
ce
an
d
t
he
rol
e
o
f r
el
ig
io
n in
s
oc
ie
ty
.
N
um
erou
s
s
ch
ol
a
r
s
have
po
in
te
d out t
hat
it
i
s
no
coinc
iden
ce
tha
t
Joh
n L
oc
ke
,
w
ho
wa
s
t
ut
or t
o
t
he j
un
io
r
P
oc
oc
ke
a
nd
one o
f
e
ra
’s
m
os
t
i
nfl
u
-
en
ti
al
p
hi
lo
so
ph
er
s,
b
eg
an
w
or
ki
ng
o
n h
is
Essay
C
on
ce
rning
Hu
ma
n U
nd
er
st
andi
ng
t
he
s
ame
y
ea
r
Ph
il
osop
hu
s
a
ut
od
i-
da
ct
ic
us
w
as
publi
sh
ed
.
A
sem
in
al
d
ocum
en
t
i
n
t
he
h
is
to
ry
of
moder
n
e
mp
iric
is
m,
L
ocke
’s “
Es
s
a
y”
v
i
e
ws
the
hum
an
mi
nd
—l
ik
e
Hay
y h
im
se
lf
—a
s
a
b
lank s
la
te
at b
irth
,
w
hi
ch
de
ve
lops
gra
du
al
ly
t
hr
ou
gh
t
he
ac
-
cu
mula
ti
on
o
f
e
xp
er
i
e.
L
ater
E
n
-
ligh
tenm
en
t
t
hi
nker
s,
suc
h
a
s
D
av
id
Hu
me
a
nd
Geo
r
Berkele
y,
dre
w
up
on
t
he
e
ssay
w
hen forming the
ir
ow
n
p
hi
lo
o
ph
ie
s.
As
f
o
D
ef
oe
’s o
wn e
xp
os
ur
e t
o
th
es
i
de
as
v
ia
t
he
Ph
ilos
op
hu
s
a
u
-
to
i
d
dacticus
,
t
he
re
i
s
i
n f
ac
t
n
o h
ar
d
vid
en
ce t
ha
t
h
e
owned
a
p
er
s
o
nal
copy
.
S
till
, as N
aw
al
Muh
am
ma
d
Hassan
,
a
ut
ho
r
of
Ha
yy
B
in Y
aq
za
n
an
d
R
obinso
n
Crusoe:
A
S
tu
dy
o
f a
n
Early
A
rabic
I
mpac
t
o
n
E
ng
lish L
it
-
er
at
ur
e
, p
oi
nt
ed
o
ut, b
ot
h Ryc
au
t’
s
Cr
it
icon
and
a
no
th
er Ockley
t
it
le,
A
H
is
to
ry
o
f
t
he
S
ar
ac
en
s
, wer
e
o
n
De
fo
e’
s
l
ib
ra
ry
she
lf
.
C
on
si
de
ri
ng
t
he
de
si
re
o
f
t
h
e
b
ut
ch
er
’s
s
on
t
o
b
e
a
cc
ep
te
d
i
n
so
ci
et
y
a
nd
s
ta
nd
s
ho
ul
de
r-
to
-s
houl
de
r
wit
h
lite
ra
ti
,
it
sta
nd
s
t
o
r
ea
son
t
ha
t
h
e
w
ou
ld
h
av
e
been
con
versan
t
w
it
h
Ha
yy
i
bn
Y
aq
za
n
,
a
bo
ok
t
ha
t
b
y
all
a
ccount
s
w
as
t
he
E
nl
ig
ht
en
-
me
nt
-e
ra
e
qu
iv
alent of a
n
O
pr
ah
s
el
e
c
t
i
on
.
To
be
s
ur
e,
D
ef
oe w
as
a
ls
o
i
ns
pi
re
d
b
y
po
pu
lar, conte
mp
oran
eo
us,
firs
t-ha
nd
s
ur
vi
va
l
na
rr
a
t
iv
es. I
n
a
dd
it
io
n
to
S
elki
rk
’s
t
al
e,
the
re
was
R
ob
er
t
K
nox, a
t
ra
de
r
tak
en
c
ap
ti
v
e
i
n
Ce
y
lon
(
Sri
Lan
ka
) i
n
166
0,
and
H
en
ry
P
it
-
ma
n,
a
1
7t
h-
cent
ury
E
ng
li
sh
d
oc
to
r
s
tr
an
de
d
on
a
C
arib
be
an
i
sl
an
d,
bot
h
o
f w
ho
m
h
av
e
be
en
p
ro
po
se
d
as
m
od
el
s
f
or Cru
so
e.
T
he
se
ma
de for
j
ui
cy
r
eadi
ng
, and
D
ef
oe
t
he
p
ra
g
-
ma
tist
w
ou
ld
hav
e
b
ee
n
k
ee
nly
a
wa
re
o
f
the
ir
co
mmer
ci
al
a
pp
eal.
But f
or
Ro
bi
ns
on
Cru
so
e
t
o
e
ndur
e
a
s
it
ha
s—to
h
av
e
e
ar
ne
d
t
he
res
pe
ct o
f S
am
ue
l
Ta
yl
or
Col
er
id
ge
,
w
ho r
eg
arded
C
ru
so
e
as
“r
ep
re
se
nt
at
ive o
f
humanit
y
i
n
g
en
er
al
,”
and R
ouss
ea
u, w
hose sel
f-
taug
ht
E
mi
le
i
s
weaned
e
xclu
si
ve
ly o
n
t
he
n
ov
el a
s
a
c
hi
ld
,
an
d
V
ir
gini
a
W
oolf
,
who
d
ecla
re
d t
ha
t
C
ru
-
so
e
“pe
rs
ua
de
s
u
s
t
o
s
ee
r
em
ot
e
islands
a
nd
t
he
sol
it
ud
es
of t
he h
um
an
s
ou
l”
—t
he
re
mus
t
h
av
e
been
somet
hi
ng
deep
er
g
oi
ng o
n
i
n D
ef
oe’s
min
d.
The
s
te
ad
y
str
ea
m
o
f
su
bs
eq
ue
nt
s
ch
olar
ship
o
n
t
he
q
ue
st
io
n
of
D
ef
o
e
’s
m
aj
or
so
ur
ce
s,
w
hi
le
n
ot
con
cl
us
iv
e,
p
oi
nt
s
u
nr
el
en
ti
ng
ly
i
n
t
he
di
re
ct
io
n
o
f Ibn
T
uf
ay
l.
Be
yo
nd
the
man
y
m
ec
ha
nica
l
plo
t
simil
arit
ies
b
et
we
en
Hayy
a
nd
Robinson C
ru
so
e
—t
he cav
e-shelte
r,
t
he
ani
ma
l-
sk
in
c
lo
h
t
in
g,
t
he A
bsal
/Fri
day s
ec
on
da
ry
c
haract
er
—C
ru
-
so
e’
s
p
hi
lo
so
ph
ic
al
r
eflec
ti
on
s dee
pl
y
e
ch
o
t
ho
se
o
f H
ay
y.
Si
tt
in
g
o
n
h
is
i
sola
te
d b
ea
ch
,
gaz
in
g
a
t
t
he
sea
,
C
ru
so
e
a
sk
ed
the
s
am
e
q
ue
st
ions Hay
y a
nd
a
ll
p
hi
lo
soph
er
s
b
ef
or
e
and
af
te
r
h
ave p
osed
:
Wh
at
i
s
t
i
h
s
e
ar
th
a
nd
s
ea
,
o
f
w
hi
ch
I
h
av
e
s
ee
n
s
o
m
uc
h?
When
ce i
s
i
t
p
ro
du
ce
d?
A
nd
w
ha
t
a
m
I
,
and
a
ll
t
he o
th
er
c
re
a
-
tu
re
s, w
il
d
a
nd
tame,
h
um
an
a
nd
b
ru
ta
l?
W
he
nc
e
a
re w
e?
Su
re
we
a
re
all
mad
e b
y
s
om
e
s
ec
re
t
p
ow
er
,
who f
orme
d
th
e
ear
t
h
a
nd
s
ea,
t
he
a
ir
and
s
ky
—And
w
ho
is
t
hat?
T
he
n
i
t
fo
ll
ow
ed
m
ost
nat
ur
al
ly
,—It
is
G
od
t
ha
t
has
mad
e
i
t
a
ll
.
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University Press, 978-0801897399.
Tom Verde
is a regular contributor to
Saudi Aramco World
.
His January/February 2013 history of pasta won a best-in-
category award from
Folio:
magazine. For this article, he
extends special thanks to the Italian Government Tourist
Board, the Tourist Office of Spain, the Seville Tourism Board,
the University of Genoa and the Bodleian Library.
Def
oe
at
tribut
ed autho
rship of the
boo
k,
publi
she
d
in 17
19,
to Crusoe
him
sel
f. Su
bsequentl
y,
De
foe
add
ed
tw
o
mo
re
vo
lum
es for a
e
nc
g
e
s
r
e
e
TOP: DE AGOSTINI PICTURE LIBRARY / BRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY; RIGHT: WILLIAM REESE COMPANY / ABEBOOKS.COM; OPPOSITE: UNIVERSAL HISTORY ARCHIVE / BRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY
tri
logy,
below
.
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